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History - Surgery - Blood Loss

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on 7 December 2013

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Transcript of History - Surgery - Blood Loss

Blood Transfusions
Blood Transfusions replace lost blood.

Doctors had tried transfusions since the 17th century, and these early transfusions were from
animals to humans.
Although patients occasionally survived, in most cases they died and the procedure was banned.

Until blood types were discovered, human to human
blood transfusions had a low success rate.
Dealing with Blood Loss
During the first World War (1914-1918), a USA doctor called
Richard Lewinson,
who had been using Sodium Citrate to thin blood during transfusions, suggested using it to store blood to set up blood banks for war surgeons. The blood had to be used quickly, but it still saved many lives.
Karl Landsteiner
Blood Groups
In 1901 Karl Landsteiner identified different blood groups
A, B, O
and later went on to identify the blood group
in 1902.
Landsteiner showed that blood transfusions had to be between people of the same blood group or else the patient died.
The Transformation of Surgery 1845-1918
Blood Loss

Problems of Pre-1845 Surgery:
Blood Loss

Loss of blood was a common reason for death in the 19th century.

Surgeons performing amputations tried to cut off the flow of blood to the limb beforehand with a clamp or tourniquet. They then tried to stop blood loss by either sealing the blood vessels with heat (using hot oil or a hot iron) or by tying them off with threads called ligatures.
Dealing with Blood Loss
Rous and Turner
In 1916,
Rous and Turner
found that adding glucose to the blood meant that it lasted longer, so the army could now call on the public to make blood donations for soldiers when they were planning to attack.

In 1917, the first Blood Bank was set up just before the battle of Cambria. It used O type blood, which had been proved to be safe to transfuse to all blood types.
Blood Typing - Negatives
Blood typing was LITTLE HELP.

Surgeons who wanted to perform a transfusion had to test the patients blood type and then find someone willing to give blood of the same blood type - and they often had to do this in little time.
This just wasn't possible in the time they had.

Doctors also needed to find a way to stop blood clotting so they could store blood for later use.

Even though it had it's negatives, blood types were still an important discovery.
Before this discovery, scientists thought that every blood type was the same and blood transfusions had a low success rate and were considered dangerous.
Richard Lewinson
Full transcript