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What were the different groups of people in Hierarchy?
Transcript of What were the different groups of people in Hierarchy?
Monarchs were at the top of the feudal society. They were also known as the kings and queens. They were part of the nobility which was the highest-ranking class in medieval society.
What were the different groups of people in the middle ages?
Becoming a knight
Peasants VS. Serfs
What's the difference?
Why did feudalism develop?
After The Roman Empire collapsed, people had to work very hard to provide for themselves and family members. Life was dangerous and difficult in Western Europe, because The Roman Empire had unified and protected much of Europe for many years. The people needed someone to protect them from conquest and danger. So, in order for the people to receive protection from danger, a system in which food, housing, labor and land was traded for protection was developed. It is called the feudal system.
Chaos in Europe during The Early Middle Ages.
What is feudalism?
A social system in medieval Europe in which the nobles received land from the monarchs in exchange for military service, and vassals who were under the control of nobles were in in charge of the peasants who were forced to pay their vassal taxes, labor, and a share of the produce in exchange for protection.
BY: Madi Yeh
This is a picture of William, the powerful Duke of Normandy who is also known as "William the conqueror. When he conquered England, he brought the social system, feudalism with him bringing stability to much of England. William was a very important monarch during the middle ages.
Monarchs were expected to provide land (fiefs) for the nobles/lords in return for loyalty and knights.
Like monarchs, nobles and lords were members of the nobility, the highest-ranking class in medieval society.
This is a picture of a Manor. Most lords and ladies lived on manors. Some lords had one manor, while others had several. Those who had more than one manor usually lived in one for a few months and then traveled with their families to another.
It was the lord’s responsibility to manage and defend his land and the people who worked it. The lord appointed officials to make sure villagers carried out their duties, which included farming and paying taxes, which were paid in the form of crops, meat, and other foods. Lords also acted as judges in manor courts. They had the power to punish those who broke the law. In times of war, lords supplied knights for the king, who gave them land to build their manors on.
Like monarchs, lords and nobles were members of the nobility, the highest-ranking class in medieval society. Noblewomen and ladies were the wives of the lords and nobles.
Except for fighting, ladies and noblewomen had all the duties that lords and nobles had. They ran their estates, sat as judges in manor courts, and sent their knights to serve the king in times of war. They were also responsible for raising and training their children and, often, the children of other noble families. Ladies and noblewomen were also responsible for overseeing their household or households.
A ladies and noblewomen had servants to help them with their personal needs, as well as with taking care of their large households.
Knights were the soldiers of the medieval times. Knights had to have a good deal of wealth, since a full suit of armor and a horse cost a small fortune. Knights were under the control of the nobles who were under the monarch's control.
Knights provided military protection to the king, lords, ladies and peasants in return for food and shelter
At the age of seven, boy started as a page or servant. A page learned how to ride a horse and received religious instruction from the local priest or friar.
The path to becoming a knight involved many years of training.
During this first stage of training, pages spent much of their time with the ladies of the castle. The ladies taught pages how to sing, dance, compose music, and play the harp which were skills valued in knights
After about seven years as a page, a young boy became a squire. During this part of his training, he spent most of his time with the knight who was his lord. The squire helped the knight in every way possible.
During this stage, squires also trained to become warriors. They learned how to fight with a sword, a lance, a battle-axe and a mace. They practiced by fighting in make-believe battles.
In his early 20s, if deserving of the honor, a squire became a knight. Becoming a knight was a complex religious event. A squire often spent the night before his knighting ceremony in prayer. During the ceremony, he knelt before his lord and said his vows. The lord drew his sword, touched the knight-to-be lightly on each shoulder with the flat side of the blade, and knighted him.
Knights lived by a strong code of behavior called chivalry. Knights were expected to be loyal to the Church and to their lord, to be just and fair, and to protect the helpless. They performed acts of kindness and paid respect to women.
Jousts and tournaments were a major part of a knight’s life. Jousts were held as sporting events, for exercise, or as serious battles between rival knights.
Knights fought wearing heavy suits of armor. In the 11th century, armor was made of linked metal rings, called chain mail. By the 14th century, plate armor was more common and offered better protection.
Most of the population in the middle ages was made up of peasants. They supported the entire feudal structure by working the land.
Men and women worked side by side in the fields.
- Allowed to leave their lord's land
- Owns/rents a small plot of land to farm on
- Could be considered a slave
- Attached to the lord's land and transferred with it from one owner to another
- Not free
Most peasants raised crops and tended livestock. However some where carpenters, shoemakers, smiths, and other skilled workers.
Serfs were usually farmers. They raised crops on their lord's land.
What did the women do?
Peasant women worked in the fields when they were needed. They also cared for their children, their homes, and livestock.
On top of all their work, peasants and serfs had to pay numerous taxes. There was a yearly payment called “head money,” at a fixed amount per person. The lord could demand a tax from peasants whenever he needed money. Also, when a woman married, she, her father, or her husband had to pay a fee called a merchet to their lord.
In the middle ages, taxes were paid with crops, livestock etc.
Most peasants lived in small, simple houses with only one or two rooms. A typical house was made of woven strips of wood covered with straw or mud. An entire family might eat and sleep in one room that sometimes also housed their farm animals
Peasants ate vegetables, meat such as pork and bread made of wheat mixed with rye or oatmeal. During the winter, they ate pork or fish that had been preserved in salt. They also used herbs in their food to improve flavor, reduce saltiness, or to disguise the taste of meat that was no longer fresh.
What were the exchanges made between each of the social classes that allowed the system to function?
Peasants and serfs provided food and services in exchange for protection by the knights.
The monarch grants feifs (land) to the lords/nobles.
The nobles/lords provided food and shelter for the knights.
Knights provided safety for peasants during times of war.
Peasants and serfs provided food and services for people of upper classes.
Knights promised to protect people of all classes in times of war.
Nobles/lords pledged their loyalty and service to the king. They also provided him with knights in times of war.
What problems did this social structure hope to solve?
After the Roman empire collapsed, there was lots of chaos. The government was very unstable, there were many social problems and the empire lived in fear due to the sudden increase of crime and invasions.
Europeans developed the system of feudalism to help provide economic and social stability and safety from vikings and other threats.
After the feudal system was developed, knights were able to protect the people from invasions.