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20th & 21st Century
Transcript of 20th & 21st Century
World War I
1914 - 1918
World War II
1939 - 1945
1954 - 1975
1945 - 1991
Persian Gulf War
1990 - 1991
2003 - 2011
Mutual dependence at a global level.
One country depends on another country for something and that country may depend on another country, which eventually creates global interdependence.
Balance of Power:
- European nations engage in a massive military buildup in order to protect overseas colonies.
- European countries form partnerships to protect themselves;
- People feel loyalty and devotion to their country or culture.
- Rival empires seek to keep power.
- June 28, 1914 Serbian Gavrilo Princip shoots and kills Austria-Hungary archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife.
Economic hardship and political unrest following WWI.
Aggressive leaders in Germany, Italy, and Japan wanted to expand their nations - Totalitarianism
Germany Invaded Poland, and Japan attacked the United States.
WWI cost the world's nations an estimated $337 BILLION!
Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were broken apart.
Germany was greatly weakened.
The Russian monarchy was overthrown.
New countries and colonies formed in Europe and the Middle East.
European colonies in Africa and Asia changed hands.
In international relations, an equilibrium (balance) of power sufficient (equal or big enough) to discourage or prevent one nation or party from imposing its will on or interfering with the interests of another.
Economic power can be defined broadly as the capacity to influence other states through economic means.
It is composed of a country's industrial base, natural resources, capital, technology, geographic position, health system and education system.
Until World War I, Britain played the role of balancer in a number of shifting alliances within Europe.
After World War II, a Northern Hemisphere balance of power pitted the U.S. and its allies against the Soviet Union and its satellites in a balance of power backed by the threat of nuclear war.
China's defection from the Soviet camp to a nonaligned but covertly anti-Soviet stance produced a third node of power.
With the Soviet Union's collapse (1991), the U.S. and its NATO allies were recognized universally as the world's paramount military power.
Importing and exporting of goods and services highly contributes to global interdependence.
Certain commodities such as oil have created a global interdependence between countries that produce the precious commodity and those that covet it.
Get out your textbook
Turn to page 825
Copy the chart Common Features of Totalitarian Governments in your notes.
Millions of people were killed, and large areas of Europe and Asia were damaged or destroyed.
The Allies occupied Japan and parts of Europe.
The United Nations was created to help prevent future wars.
Conflict began between the Soviet Union and the other Allies over the fate of Eastern Europe.
The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the world's two major powers.
Systems of Government:
Soviet Union was a Communist Dictatorship.
United States is a democratic republic.
Arms race between Soviet Union and United States led to the threat of nuclear war.
Confrontations took place around the world, including Germany (
), Cuba (
Cuban Missile Crisis
), Korea (
), and many other locations.
Soviet Union and the United States formed a variety of alliances.
; Soviet Union =
Soviet Union eventually collapsed, and United States became the world's sole superpower.
Soviet Union and the U.S. disagreed over Eastern Europe.
Soviet Union established Communist governments throughout Eastern Europe.
United States resisted Soviet expansion and aided countries seeking to resist communism.
French colonial rule of Vietnam ended in 1954 after the Vietminh fought for Vietnamese independence.
Western powers did not want Communism to spread, so Vietnam was divided into North (Communist) and South (Democratic) Vietnam.
U.S. sends troops to aid South Vietnam in a Civil War against the North.
U.S. reaches a peace agreement with North Vietnam and withdraws its troops in 1973
April 1975 the North Vietnamese take control of Saigon the South Vietnamese capital.
1976 Vietnam is unified and becomes a Communist country.
Iraq accuses Kuwait of stealing oil from an Iraqi oil field.
Iraq invades Kuwait.
United Nations passes economic sanctions on Iraq; Iraq ignores them.
U.S. led coalition launches Persian Gulf War.
Iraqi invasion threatened oil supplies produced by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
Continued economic sanctions by the UN on Iraq; required destruction of Iraq's chemical and biological weapons.
Saddam Hussein remains in power.
September 11, 2001 - World Trade Centers are attacked and destroyed.
U.S. leaders believe that Saddam Hussein (leader of Iraq) poses a great threat to U.S. security.
Believed that Hussein had weapons of mass destruction (WMD), which he would sell to terrorists.
UN sends inspectors to search for WMD's, but none are found.
U.S. led coalition invades Iraq, to take Hussein out of power despite no WMD's being found.
U.S. spent $3 trillion (3,000,000,000,000.00)
2003 price of a barrel of oil = $25
2008 price of a barrel of oil = $140
1st time in American history that a war was funded by debt (borrowing); U.S. cut taxes as it went to war.
March 2003 U.S. debt = $6.4 trillion (6,400,000,000,000.00)
March 2008 U.S. debt = $10 trillion (10,000,000,000,000.00)
U.S economy suffers while Chinese economy booms.
Balance of Power in the Middle East changed:
Saddam Hussein's Iraq was a balancer against Iran and its allies.
With no Hussein nor a strong Iraqi government, Iran and its allies assert their own agenda's in the M.E.
U.S. loses "respect" of foreign countries; "Time Magazine poll just before the war, 84% of Europeans identified the US as the main threat to world peace."