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Sustainability and Natural Resources

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Danny Giang

on 29 January 2014

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Transcript of Sustainability and Natural Resources

Sustainability and Natural Resources
Presentation by: Danny Giang
What is Forestry?
-Forestry is the science or practice of planting, managing, and caring for forests' resources.
-These resources include timber, water, fish, wildlife, soil, plants, recreation and spiritual sanctuaries.
-We have to understand how to to keep our forests' resources "sustainable".
-What is sustainability?
-Sustainability = Use of resources at a rate that allows the resources to renew themselves.

What is Mining?
"Sustainability literally means the capacity to endure over time. Symbolically, it refers to what is of true values, what is good, genuine and resilient, which can stand the test of time. Sustainability associates with balance and equity in a comprehensive approach, which acknowledges our dependence on the health of natural systems for our survival and well- being, the limit carrying capacity of the Earth and the detrimental impact of unchecked human activities (Edwards 2005). Thus, sustainability strives for balance among the interconnected ecological, economic and social systems. As implied from the most popular definition of sustainable development."
What is Energy?
Bibliography
- “Beyond You and Me -Inspirations and Wisdom for Building Community”, Robin Alfred & Kosha Anja Joubert (Ed.), Gaia Education -Permanent Publications 2007 (Quote)
- Chandler, N.. N.p.. Web. 26 Nov 2013. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/solar-power-help-environment.htm>.
- Environment Canada, Web. 26 Nov 2013. <http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=CBE3CD59-1&offset=5>.
- Greenpeace, . N.p.. Web. 26 Nov 2013. <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/coal/Mining-impacts/>.
- University of British Columbia, . N.p.. Web. 26 Nov 2013. <http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/general-information/what-is-forestry/>.
- Images found on google search engine



Why is Sustainable Forest Management Important?
-What is sustainable forest management (SFM)?

-It is maintaining our forests, so we can use it's resources for the future and have enough resources to reuse. Cut a tree, replant a tree.

-There are 5 necessities in SFM
-They are biodiversity, climate change, legality of timber, indigenous people & social issues and water + soil

-How do these necessities affect the forests?

-Biodiversity = habitats for people, wildlife, plants, spiritual & recreational advantages, etc.
-Climate change = Forest don't adjust, which cause problems like growth lifespan, etc.
-Legality of timber = Can't sustain illegal logging of trees, cost a lot of money
-Indigenous people & social issues = Provide 1.6 billion people with money and supplies
-Water + soil = help trees grow healthy and keeps erosion to a minimum

-Who is in charge sustaining our forests?

-It can be from forests managers to logging companies. The most important is they have to follow PEFC Certifications (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certifications)

-PEFC is an organization which give standards that must be
met in order to have "certified" sustainable forest.
Shelterwood Logging
-What is shelterwood logging?

-It is a method of removing trees by clear-cutting only a part of an old-growth forest

-Positives: seeds regenerate the logged areas

-Negatives: Used the forests with trees that have grow and age evenly
Clear Cutting
-What is clear-cutting?

-It is a method of removing trees by loggers cutting every tree
and leave a barren landscape behind.

-Positives: Fast,cheap and can be replanted & regrown

-Negatives: Land may be ruined, soil can erode and may not be
reforested
Selective Cutting
-What is selective cutting?

-Selective cutting is a method of removing trees by
harvesting only mature trees of desired size, type, or
quality

-Positives: Less disruptive to the environment

-Negatives: Costly, time consuming and costly in the long
run
Which Method is the Best For Sustainable Forest Management (SFM)
-I believe selective cutting is the best method for SFM

-Why?

-It only cuts certain trees of desired type, size, or quality

-This is good for SFM because: - Keeps the habitat for animals,
people, etc.
- Does not let the soil erode or
wash away because there are trees left behind
- Keeps biodiversity because you
have to plant new trees along with the trees left behind
- ETC.
-Energy is the capacity or power to do work.
- It is measured in a basic unit called joules
- There are 2 kinds of energy source, conventional and alternative.
-Conventional energy sources include oil, gas, coal, hydro, etc.
-Alternative energy sources include solar, wind, biomass, etc.
-What are some ways to generate energy?
Strip Mining
- It is a method used to extract minerals like coal & oil sands

- Extracts them when they are located in horizontal layers near the surface.

-Overburden is removed, blasting may be used.

-Materials are then loaded onto trucks and taken to storage

_Method only used if there is high mineral deposit on the surface.
Open - Pit Mining
- Method used to extract minerals that are located near the surface but that may extend deep into the earth.

- Overburden removed, blasting may be used

- Holes drilled 10 - 15 meters

- Ores loaded in large trucks and taken to storage sites
Underground Mining
- Method used to extract mineral ores located deep in the earth

- Factory must be built, in order to take the "cage" (elevator) down into holes frilled in rock faces

-Explode rocks, test walls and ceilings, remove muck (blasted rock)

-Muck crushed & loaded onto hoist, skip lifts up, ores are taken to storage site

_Minerals are then waiting for milling and smelting
Which Method is Best for the Environment?
- I believe that underground mining is best for the environment

- While underground mining cause greenhouse gas emissions, strip and open-pit mines destroys landscapes, forests and wildlife habitats when trees, plants, and soil are cleared from the mining area.

-This cause soil erosion and is a detriment to agricultural.

- Also, Strip and open-pit mining causes dust and noise pollution when the outer layer of soil is disrupted with heavy machine equipments.

- In my opinion, if underground mining is done right and safely it is less disruptive to the environment because it doesn't affect the outside layer and when they are done they let the mine collapse (subsidence)

- This is good because it disposes the mine naturally.

- No matter what method you use, mining will always cause pollution because all mining produce toxic wastes.


How Do We Dispose Minerals Safely?
- How are the waste created?

- Ores (rock containing minerals) that mined are made up of mostly waste rock. In order to get the mineral we must go through two process.

- They are milling and smelting. The mill separates the waste rock from the mineral purifying it into an ore concentrate. Then you take the concentrate to the smelter which melts the ore concentrates and a substance called flux.

- Flux fuses with the waste rock to form a material called slag. Slag is lighter than the liquid metal so it rises. This leave a pure metal behind to be poured into molds

-During this process a waste material is produced called tailings. Tailings are a mixture of water, chemicals, and rock particles. Tailings are poisonous.

- We dispose tailings by dumping them into tailing ponds that are in dikes. Dikes are controlled ditches that holds back water. The purpose of a dike is to prevent the mine from seeping into lakes and rivers which would cause pollution.

-Lastly, the water in the tailings will eventually evaporate leaving solid waste behind, which we treat with fertilizers to make trees and grasses to grow
in that area
Hydro-Electricity
- How is it created?

- Generating stations are built near rivers with changes in elevation and large reliable flow of water.

- Water is then directed in the direction of the turbines of the stations which turn the shaft of the generators to make electricity

- Advantages: plants are cheap, no fuel to buy, no air pollution, renewable source, reservoir can be used for recreation

- Disadvantages: costly, must find suitable sites, flooding of low lying areas, must be built in remote places
Nuclear-Electricity
- How is it created?

- Uses nuclear fission to boil water for steam to power the generators

- Advantages: transmission cost low, operation cost low, abundant supply of uranium in Canada (eh), does not produce air pollution

- Disadvantages: construction cost high, materials used are hazardous, factories have short lifespan
Oil and Gas
- Oil and gas are the two most common use for energy

- Not only is oil and gas used for energy it is a huge industry for economy

- Oil is cheaper to ship by water there for Canada import oil to the east by super - tankers and export oil to the United States in the west by pipelines

- Result in cheaper oil for consumers, which we use for cars, electricity, etc.

- Why should we be careful of using oil and gas?

- When oil and gas are used for energy, it lets off a greenhouse gas emission (carbon, etc.) that eats away our ozone layer.

- When we have a thin ozone layer, heat gets trap in certain places, this causes global warming. Global warming is terrible to our society because it will affect forestry, mining, and energy.

- Global warming cause climate change, natural disasters,
rise in sea levels, droughts, disease (malaria) because of warm
weather, animal extinction, etc.


Thermal-Electricity
- How is it created?

- Use of steam generators by burning fuel like oil, coal, natural gas, wood, or garbage to turn the turbine of electric generator

- Advantages: shorter transmission lines, less expensive to build

-Disadvantages: fuel costs are high, uses non-renewable sources, produce greenhouse gases

Solar Energy
- Solar energy is one of many alternative energy source

- It is better for our planet because we are using a renewable energy, sunlight

- It works by panels absorbing heat and converting it into electricity

- This reduces the need of burning fossil fuels which means no air pollution and greenhouse gasses.

-It does not have a lot of moving parts and it is quiet when used. solar power is great because it produces its greatest output as demand spikes. eg. summer = air conditioning, winter = heating

- A drawback is that these "photovoltaic" panels are very expensive which is why solar power only accounts 1% of the United States energy


-As you can see there is no biodiversity because of replanting the same tree. Without SFM, our forests would be gone. We would cut faster than the trees are regrown.

-This is bad to our environment, habitat and our own resources.

-An example is, we lose a large amount oxygen, animals and people lose their homes and logging companies cannot keep up with consumers demands and needs.

-Mining is a hole made in the earth for the purpose of seperating minerals.
_What are minerals?
-Broken down into 3 categories:
Metallic Minerals - minerals when refined, yield the
group of materials we know as metals. eg. gold, silver,
etc
Fossil Fuels - minerals that can be burn for energy. eg.
coal, oil, etc.
Industrial Minerals - all things that are mined that are neither metallic nor fossil fuels. eg. asbestos, potash, etc.
-How do we get these minerals?




- I believe hydro-electricity is the best method of generating energy that doesn't affect the environment
- Since no fuel is burned hydro-electricity produces small amounts of pollution (no air pollution). Water is a renewable source which means we can always use it. Lastly, since there is no air pollution, there is no greenhouse gasses or acid precipitation.
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