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Fabric Seminar

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Tiffany Cheng

on 15 March 2013

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Transcript of Fabric Seminar

By: Tiffany Cheng
& Jen Wynn INSPECTING FABRIC What are textiles? - fabrics (cloth) and other materials made primarily from combination of fibers - the fibers can be woven, knitted, braided, tufted, or made by mechanical or chemical bonding into non-woven fabrics What are fabrics? - flexible material that is made from natural or synthetic fibers Textile Fibers: - long, hair-like or thread-like strands - synthetic: textile manufactured from man-made fibers, OR a mix of natural and man-made fibers TYPES OF FIBERS: FORMS OF FIBERS: - staple fibers: short fibers (around 6” long) - filament fibers: long and continuous - tow: a bundle of untwisted continuous fibers - yarn: a bunch of twisted fibers - organic: from plant cellulose, rubber, manufactured polymers > polymers: acrylic, polyester, nylon, polyurethane (spandex) - inorganic: metal, glass > cellulose: rayon, acetate > metal:
- gold and silver added for decoration
- conductive metal fibers added to drive away static electrical charges - thermoplastics: extrude molten plastic through extrusion dies (spinnerets) into cold air to solidify Standards, References and Associations ASTM Processing: YARN MAKING: - continuous strands of fibers that can be woven or knitted into fabrics - final yarn-making step that puts a twist in the yarn and entire of sequence of operations that converts raw fibers to usable yarn - separation of raw fibers from unwanted material: leaves, twigs, dirt, seeds, - disentangles bunches and knots of fibers and arranges them in parallel direction, eliminates fibers that are too short COMBING: - additional fiber alignment operation performed for very fine yarns intended for fine fabrics DRAWING: DRAFTING/RE-BLENDING: - combine into 1 strand that is drawn so it is longer and thinner -> roving SPINNING: - further draws and twists fibers to join them together in a continuous yarn or thread TWIST: - provide strength to yarn, twisting causes filaments to interlock - synthetic fibers: liquid or semi liquid polymer through small holes (spinneret), align molecules increases the strength Weaves - interlacing yarn to create a fabric - made in a machine called a loom - two sets of yarn interlaced together at right angles to each other - warp: runs lengthwise in loom - weft, filling, or woof: runs crosswise in loom Plain Weave 3 MAIN TYPES OF WEAVES 1. Plain / taffeta weave - fabric structure composed of one set of warps and one set of wefts (harness), interlacing in a rhythm of over-one and under one - simplest weave structure - basis of other weaves Satin Weave - surface of long floats (unbound at some areas) - bound in systematic way - often made of silk: long float reflects light Twill Weave - minimum 3 warps and 3 wefts (3 harnesses) - floating one warp and one weft yarn over two or more yarns - diagonal progression OTHER WEAVES (SPECIAL WEAVES) Jacquard Weave Jacquard Loom Dobby Loom - raising and lowering of individual warp threads to create complex designs - making simpler designs - if more complex designs are desired, jacquard loom will be used - operates slower than other looms so fabrics are more expensive - contains intricate motifs - highly detailed - very durable and will not fade - often multicoloured Crepe Weave - random floats - produces pebbled effect - twisted tightly: crinkled Leno Weave - variation of plain weaves - may be combined with other weaves - pairs of warps cross weft - allows light and air to pass by Tapestry Weave - not tapestry wall hangings - hand technique of joining extra yarns Dobby Weave - woven-in shapes and textures - raising and lowering warp Pile Weave - raised furlike or hairlike surface - made with extra set of yarns: pile yarns 2. Twill weave 3. Satin weave - Jacquard - Crepe - Leno - Dobby - Pile - Tapestry Finishing - chemical or mechanical process - improve appearance or touch of fabric - enhance its performance AESTHETIC FINISHES: FUNCTIONAL FINISHES: > dyeing > bleaching - change appearance of fabric PREPARATION - removing impurities from weave or knit - prepare clean and absorbing material for finishing and colour > calendering - improve performance of fabric > flame-resistant > water resistant Bleaching: - whitens fabric by removing natural colour - obtaining pure white colour Dyeing - adding colour to textile - immersed in aqueous solution Calendering - high pressure and speed of pressing fabric - makes fabric softer - enhance its luster > mercerization Mercerization - used on cotton - increases its strength by 25% - applied prior to dying > stain resistant > heat insulation Flame-Resistant - cotton, rayon, nylon, polyester SALINES POLYMERS - less expensive - not as durable - discolours fabric - more durable - wear out after 20 dry cleanings - heat set - may cause colour changes or stiffness Water Resistant - resist water penetration - waxes used so water stays on surface Heat Insulation - treated with plastic and aluminum adhesive coating - keep heat in during winter Stain Resistant - sprayed on - lays on surface - durable through 40-50 laundries PRINTING > screen > discharge - adds design on top of fabric Screen Discharge - dyed through stencil - each colour is a different stencil - removes dye from coloured fabric with bleach - often used for polka dots FINAL FABRIC DRYING - finally need to be dried Compound - layered in 2 or more thicknesses > embroidered > embossed Embroidered - thread or yarn work with needle - can incorporate different materials such as beads - many motifs and patterns can be made Embossed - "stamp" applied with heat - creates design with raised surface Application The abundance of textiles allows many different uses and applications in the interior environment > upholstery > drapery > bedding products > bath products Upholstery Windows and Drapery - fibers may decay after a long time due to exposure of ultraviolent waves from sunlight - heavier yarns possess greater resistance to sunlight - lining attached to the back of drapery fabric - reduce sunlight on fabrics of drapery material LINING - provides noise reduction Bedding Products Sheets and Pillowcases - either 100% cotton or blend of polyester and cotton - colourfast to washing and (loss of colour from abrasion) - should have good stability - less than 2% shrinkage Blankets > sheets and pillowcases > blankets > bedspreads, quilts, and comforters > pillows > mattresses - also called domestics - mostly woven KNITTED BLANKETS - three-dimensional surface - thermal blankets - insulation of heat Bedspreads, Quilts,
and Comforters - outer bed covering - insulators to provide warmth Pillows - categorized into: > bed pillows: for sleep (rectangle shape) > decorative pillows: also known as throw pillows, used as decoration (square, rectangle, round, cylindrical shapes) - ticking: fabric enclosing filling material Mattress - 2 basic constructions > inner springs: level of support varies with density of foam > foam core: slab of rubber or urethane foam Bath Products - towels - bath rugs and mats - shower curtains Towels - usually made with 100% cotton - various types of sizes - absorbent Bath Rugs and Mats BATH RUGS BATH MATS - small and decorative - not meant to be absorbent - meets flammability regulations - maximum absorbency - 100% cotton - meets flammability regulations Shower Curtains - sheet-plastic products - coated to protect it from water and soap residue - subject to abrasion and stress - 2 categories > residential > contract: higher performance standards than residential, constructed with tighter weaves - make sure patterns are matched in the right direction Recycling: - less landfill deposit - reduction in material use - reduction in product quality and its desired aesthetics PICKING CARDING History > exploration
> settlement
> trade route development
> industrialization
> labor practices
> work ethics
> culture and society The finding, trading, manufacturing and retail of cloth led to: “The development of textiles can truly be said to be the fabric of history”.-The Guide to Textiles Felt Most likely the first form of cloth. Unsure as to how early humans began to make this simple cloth - monofilament fibers: long and continuous, thicker > glass:
- drawing molten glass
- usually used for curtains and draperies and other applications where fire resistance and resistance to deterioration from moisture and sunlight is needed - applying fabric to furniture Stone Age Spinning fiber and weaving cloth go back approx. 6000 years. Linens found in prehistoric ruins 4000 BC Start of wool trade 3000 BC Egypt creating high quality linens comparable to today 2640 BC Empress Hsi-Ling-Chi discovered silk (according to Chinese legend) 1500 BC India was raising cotton, spinning yarn, weaving fabric, and trading 1000 BC Mediterranean a prominent trades center the Phoenicians the principle seafarers, trading in raw wool and woven goods. They
coveted purple dye extracted from molluscs of the Mediterranean. This dye was probably 1st permanent dye. So costly it was reserved for Royals. 327 BC Alexander the Great invades India, became taken with the cotton prints, leading cotton to be main apparel fabric along Mediterranean 125 BC Silk Road (6000 mile trail from Italy to the Far East) opened. transport route for silk from China to Roman Empire 100’s AD Cotton production began in Greece. 1st European country to grow the crop. India remained principle source of the fiber. Arab traders dealt in cotton fabrics to Mediterranean and Europe 200’s AD Japan learning sericulture (silkworm harvesting and farming) at time silk worth its weight in gold 768 AD Charlemagne established textile manufacturing centers in Lyons and Rouen France. Lyons still prominent textile center Wool 1300's AD Sheep raising England’s most profitable pursuit 1500’s AD Spanish wool became known for high quality due to crossbreeding 1640 AD Approx. 3000 sheep in American colonies 1780 AD Sheep first introduced to Australia. Different breeds purchased to crossbreed for the particular climate. Founded and promoted Pastoral Company of English Investors: help with colonization, make Australia a world wool supplier 1794 AD Spanish sheep introduced to Argentine 1724 AD Merino sheep raising introduced to South Africa, by 1724. Today some 38 million sheep are raised there, makes up approx. 6% of world’s sheep population 1700’s AD: Millions of sheep, per country worldwide. Raising of sheep still a viable and profitable agricultural venture today 1650 AD First cotton plantation in Virginia. Main occupation in southern US, need for field workers rationale for extensive slave trade. Cotton industry largest, most profitable crop in the South War of 1812 = boom in all textiles in US as they were no longer receiving assistance from Europe. Continues for remainder of the century, and into the 1900’s 1812AD Onwards Introduction of manmade fibers and fabrics. America world’s highest producer 1930’s AD American cotton industry employed approx. 14 million, making $15 billion/year 1950 AD Considerations for Interior Designers COLOUR/TEXTURE CARE READING A FABRIC CARD Future Fabrics XOREL: INGEO: CORK FABRIC: RECYCLED LEATHER: Thank you! Questions? Behaviours and Characteristics: NATURAL FIBERS: PLANT Plant:
> cotton > hemp
> flax (linen) > jute (burlap) Protein:
> wool > mohair
> silk Natural: Mineral:
> asbestos
> rubber Synthetic: >good-excellent: density, absorbency and strength
>poor-fair: elasticity, luster, recovery and resilience
>damaged by acids, microorganisms and insects
>resistant to alkalis, solvents, and the sun
>burns rapidly, leaving a grey ash Behaviours and Characteristics: NATURAL FIBERS: PROTEIN >good-excellent: absorbency, flexibility, recovery, elasticity and resilience
>poor-fair: density
>damaged by alkalis, acids and sun
>resistant to solvents
>varying strength, luster, resistance to microorganisms and insects,
>burns slowly, leaving bead-like
residue
>warmer than plant fibers Behaviours and Characteristics: NATURAL FIBERS: MINERAL Asbestos:
>good-excellent strength, flexibility, luster and density
>poor-fair: absorbency
>resistant to alkalis,solvents, acids and sun. Not affected by microorganisms or insects
>burns after prolonged periods in high heat (1520 degrees C) essentially fireproof
>only natural mineral found in fiber form
>95% is mined in Canada Rubber:
>good-excellent: strength, flexibility, medium density
>no luster or absorbency (impermeable to water)
>resistant to alkalis, acids and solvents
>damaged by body oils, and petroleum solvents. No resistance to sun
>melts, then burns rapidly,leave gummy black
residue. Becomes brittle in cold. Behaviours and Characteristics: SYNTHETIC FIBERS: ORGANIC, POLYMERS >good-excellent: strength (typically, sometimes varies), flexibility, recovery, elasticity and resilience
>poor-fair: density, absorbency, and varying luster
>resistant to microorganisms and insects. Most are resistant to alkalis, acids, solvents and sun
>burns slowly (with the exception of acrylic) leaving bead-like residue Behaviours and Characteristics: Behaviours and Characteristics: Glass:
>good-excellent: strength, resilience, flexibility, recovery and density. Medium luster and elasticity
>no absorbency
>damaged by alkalis
>resistant to solvents, acids, microorganisms and insects
>will not burn, but softens and goes red SYNTHETIC FIBERS: ORGANIC, CELLULOSE SYNTHETIC FIBERS: INORGANIC >recovery, resilience, flexibility and elasticity vary
>medium density, low strength and absorbency
>damaged by acids, sun, and can be by microorganisms and insects
>resistant to solvents. A medium resistance to alkalis
>burns rapidly, leaving bead-like residue - play on lighting against colour and texture
- connotations of how they make clients feel
- understand the client's needs
- focal or blend in with room - client's needs: do they have kids? pets?
- abrasion: check double rub tests especially for upholstery; Martindale vs Wyzenbeek
- what application are you using it for?
- clarify with sales representatives if your chosen fabric is appropriate for that function Metal:
>good-excellent: density and luster, medium resilience
>poor-fair: strength, flexibility, recovery, elasticity and absorbency
>resistant to alkalis, acids, solvents, sun, microorganisms and insects
>pure metal does not burn, glows red. coated metal burns as coating American Association of Textile Chemists and Colourists AATCC ACT Association for Contract Textiles FSA Fabric Structures Association Industrial Fabric Association International IFAI GRAPHIC SYMBOL: American Society for Testing Materials >woven textile made of 100% polyethylene (cleanest type of plastic available)
>high performance characteristics are contained in the individual filaments of yarn
>no finishes, coatings or additives to enhance performance
>has achieved Cradle to Cradle Silver Certification. >Spinneybeck’s Recycled Leather is taken from ground up shoe-sole scraps mixed with a water-based adhesive to bind
> result is used for Spinneybeck leather tiles
>tiles can be used in a wide range of vertical and upholstery applications, in a range of colors and shapes
>unlike traditional leather tiles (little or no resistance to abrasion, fading, and staining) Spinneybeck leather tiles treated with a water-repellent finish which absorbs becoming integral part of the surface >combination of repurposed cork and elastane. >suited to upholstery, wall coverings, and wall panel applications
>benefits:high elasticity of elastane, acoustic and thermal properties of cork
>cork made with the by-products from wine stopper production
>treated with a metallic finish
>available in a range of colors and fiber combinations >fiber derives from corn, a renewable resource. >use bacterial fermentation to convert corn from a starch to sugar to polylactic acid
>acid processed like most thermoplastics into fiber
>a closed loop sustainable product
>natural origins allow safe biodegradation >Future plansto utilize corn husks and other inedible parts of the plant Picking Variety of yarn Blending and feeding Picking fibers Opening cotton fibers Carding Drawing Spinning
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