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Figueroa's Framework - The Structural Level
Transcript of Figueroa's Framework - The Structural Level
Human resources refer to the coaches, umpires, administrators, ground staff and anyone else who contributes to the running of the club or organisation.
Volunteers = most sporting clubs cannot afford to employ paid staff as they need to use most of the finances to pay other expenses. Therefore, the greater the volunteer base available to a club or association, the better the facilities, opportunities, support and coaching that will be available to participants.
Quality of human resources= a quality coach can help an athlete get selected in representative teams and good managers and administrators are better able to manage the human, physical and financial resources of that sport. The media, through its various mediums, including radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books, internet, video games and other multimedia sources, saturate the Australian market and culture.
At the moment, television is the most powerful media influence on physical activity and sport due to the billions of dollars it distributes to sporting organisations and individuals.
As sports gain greater media attention, they attract greater financial rewards through television rights and sponsorship. Sports with wide media exposure can attract millions of sponsorship and broadcast rights dollars. This funding at the elite level of the sport eventually sees the benefits in the form of resources and rewards trickle down the ladder to the local level in the form of accessibility, rewards and resources. Many would argue that the term ‘trickle down’ is quite apt as elite players and competitions take the largest slice of the financial pie. Players at the local club level far outweigh them with regards to number of participants but must share a smaller proportion of these television dollars. Despite many initiatives and improvements research indicates that females continue to be under-represented in all aspects of sport, recreation and physical activity due to their limited access to resources. These indicators include:
• lower participation rates than men and boys
• under-representation in all areas of leadership, management and decision making
• under-representation in all areas of coaching, especially at the elite level
• less sporting media coverage (hours and variety)
• greater ‘drop-out’ rates than males
• less sponsorship and funding than males.
Females are not the only population group to suffer from inequities at the structural level. Other population groups that have reduced access and opportunity are:
• rural populations
• lower socioeconomic populations
• those with a physical, emotional or psychological disability
• cultural minority groups.
Physical resources refer to the venue and equipment. Some sports and physical activities can be done anywhere, such as walking and jogging. These activities also require very little equipment. Other sports require specialist venues (water polo, ice skating) and/or expensive equipment (skydiving, rowing etc.).
The degree to which physical resources affect access and participation is closely associated with location and cost. If the resources are too far away or expensive then fewer people will be able to access that physical activity. e.g. snow skiing for us in North Queensland. FINANCIAL:
Financial resources are necessary to pay for the upkeep or hire of facilities, equipment, administrative costs, insurance, etc. Any additional funding can be used to further enhance the physical resources, provide remuneration for workers or assistance to athletes.
At the association level (district, state or national) more money is generally available and, therefore, organisations are able to support full- or part-time workers and also athletes at the representative level. But there is a great disparity between the operating budgets of different national sporting associations. This is due to the distribution of money to the different sports. This, in turn, affects the amount of money that is distributed down to individual participants. The more money that filters down to participants, the cheaper it will be to be involved with that activity. What human resources do you have at Pimlico?
How do these people help your participation and access to tennis/badminton?
How can these human resources be a barrier? What physical resources do you have at Pimlico?
How do these help your participation and access to tennis/badminton?
How can these physical resources be a barrier? What financial resources do you have at Pimlico?
How do these help your participation and access to tennis/badminton?
Are there any barriers with financial resources? THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES The distribution of resources occurs at many levels. For example, the government or businesses will distribute money to different sporting organisations, while sporting clubs will distribute resources to different teams or areas of need.
Resources and rewards do not always filter from the top down. Sponsorship deals and prize money for individuals are an example how participants can be provided with additional resources and rewards from a number of sources. http://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/london-olympics/funding-axe-hovers-over-olympic-sports/story-fn9dheyx-1226447871562 What are the motivations of this tennis organisation? THE MOTIVATION OF MEDIA, GOVERNMENT, BUSINESS, SCHOOLS AND SPORTING ASSOCIATIONS WHEN DISTRIBUTING RESOURCES AND REWARDS
If a person or organisation is to give away resources or rewards they will generally hope to get something in return that is of benefit to them. The media, government, business, schools and sporting organisations will to some extent expect a return on their investment. This is not to say that they only do it for these reasons, but rarely are resources and rewards given away for totally altruistic reasons. The returns to the different benefactors can be wide and varying. What human, physical and financial resources did Bernard Tomic have available to him?
Does this differ from your opportunities? http://www.theage.com.au/afl/afl-news/afls-billion-dollar-baby-looms-20110428-1dxly.html Case Study - AFL
AFL enjoys immense popularity, media exposure and a professionally run administration. These are some of the factors that have enabled it to become the most popular viewed sport in Australia.
As a result, the Australian Football League (AFL) has been able to channel finances to grow the sport through its Queensland AFL Development Program. Queensland AFL visits schools throughout Queensland, offering coaching clinics, competitions, resources and rewards such as footballs, scholarships, prizes, free tickets and jerseys. Therefore, people interested in AFL enjoy an environment of easier access to this sport.
The introduction of digital television in Australia has opened up more opportunities for sports to be showcased on television. Channel 10’s OneHD is a dedicated sports channel and the financial rewards that have flowed from this situation has benefited sport, such as netball, greatly.
The AFL signed a deal with channel seven, ten and foxtel to ensure all matches throughout the season are live for viewers in every state. THE ISSUE OF FINANCIAL RATIONALISM VS SOCIAL JUSTICE
The media’s allocation of resources and rewards is typically driven by financial rationalism. Media empires are business empires and they exist to generate profits for their owners. Decisions made to spend millions of dollars on programming are not made with ideas of equity and social justice in mind; rather, the need to have a positive financial return on their investment dollars.
Financial rationalism is one of the reasons for the inequitable distribution of resources and rewards.
WHY?????? More money is paid to the popular or attractive sports and athletes. This has an impact at the end of the funding food chain, resulting in more money available for growing soccer and cricket for young Australian males and less for female basketball, soccer or hockey players. The other result of media’s financial rationalist framework has been the commodification and sexualisation of our athletes, sports and physical activities.
The nature and extent of government involvement in sport and leisure activities spans across the three levels of government. Like the media, the government’s combined contribution of financial resourcing is in the millions of dollars.
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
Main objective is:
1. to increase participation in sport, physical activity and leisure activity via access to a variety of programs initiatives.
2. provide athletes with the opportunities and resources to develop their athletic skills at an elite level. To assist the government, the AIS has helped develop and continue to develop elite athletes via access to world class facilities, coaching and support services. It is mainly due to the AIS that Australia has experienced such success in sport on the world stage, particularly so at the Olympics. The commission also encourages participation for women, people with disabilities, Indigenous groups and for people living in rural areas.
STATE AND TERRITORY GOVERNMENTS
The state and territory governments have focused on participation in sport by supporting the improvement of facilities and the development of sporting programs and initiatives through its own branches that services Queensland and its communities. e.g. Queensland Sport and Recreation and Queensland Academy of Sport.
Local government councils are key stakeholders in sport and recreation and are a major provider of sport and recreation infrastructure and maintenance. Local governments do not just distribute funding, they also receive funding from state and federal governments. Unfortunately for some, funding decisions are based on economic viability reports, which can affect access for some rural groups who do not have the population or demand to sustain the financial viability of resource. However, it is not uncommon for applications to be approved for local club communities, schools and even for students who represent their region or state in secondary school sport.
THE GOVERNMENT’S DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES AND REWARDS The government’s allocation of resources is influenced by Nationalism
Australian’s take great pride in the success of their athletes, particularly on the world stage at the Olympics. The government recognises this fact and to build pride in the nation, our government provides substantial funding for elite sporting programs.
It is generally agreed that governments should support these programs, but the question that many raise is should it be at the expense of sports at the ‘grass roots’ level? The distribution of the sporting financial pie has many complaining that the current apportioning of resources is creating inequities. The privileged and/or talented receive greater assistance to pursue their sporting interests than regular or marginalised Australians.
The government is concerned with issues of equity. There is government policy committed to promoting ‘participation and excellence’ and to ensure that equity and accessibility are catered for at all levels, from the community to the elite.
* sport and recreation facilities
* participation opportunities
* opportunities and resources for remote/rural areas
* eliminating harassment, abuse, violence, exploitation and discrimination
* ensuring all high-performance sports programs/services account for all athlete needs
* promoting gender equity
* provide access of rewards on an equitable basis for all participants. Politics and public opinion
It is quite common to see governments assist in most forms of sports and physical activities, particularly the more popular sports. For instance, huge government funding was injected into the Carrara Stadium (AFL) and Skilled Park Stadium (Rugby League) on the Gold Coast and The Gabba (Cricket/AFL) and Suncorp stadiums (Rugby League) in Brisbane. Before doing so, our political leaders like to be seen supporting sports as it improves their popularity.
A social situation where individuals and groups have the same status, rights, access and opportunities.
http://prezi.com/umh7b3xks19e/copy-of-women-triathlon-runners/?kw=view-umh7b3xks19e&rc=ref-11835097 Written work derived from:
Kiss, M, Kleoudis, T, Rasi, M, Stewart, R. 2010. Step Forward; Senior Physical Education for Queensland. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.