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Ecozones: Pacific Maritime
Transcript of Ecozones: Pacific Maritime
Pacific Maritime ecozone is a terrestrial ecozone extends over 200 square kilometre bordering along the western coast of Canada and Alaska. Consisting of 3.2 million people, Pacific Maritime ecozone is also one of the most populated ecozone in Canada. Due ocean current, air masses and continent relief, the Pacific Maritime ecozone has maritime climate. These characteristics allow the Pacific Maritime ecozone to be one of the most diverse ecozone in Canada. - Coast Mountains take up the majority of this ecozone. the mountains are quite young and have glaciers on the highest peaks. Where the mountains are smaller, it is more rugged.
- Fijords and channels separate the border between Vancouver Island and Alaska. They reach inland of 190 kilometres and have steep sides of about 2000 metres deep
- if land is not covered with mountains, it is taken up by small coastal plains. There are only long narrow strips of plains in the coast.
- Part of the Western Cordillera landform region - Variety of mountain soils
- Complex soils
- Since this ecozone is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, magma is near the surface therefore generating many hot springs
- under the ecozone is igneous and sedimentary rocks while fallen rocks and glacial excess complete the surface
-Substances mined in this area: copper coal, zinc, molybdenum, silver and lead. These are produced and exported.
-The soil in this area contain a lot of humus and is rich in minerals due to the large amount of rainfall that leaches the minerals and nutrients deep into the soil.
-The natural vegetation of Pacific Maritime Ecozone is West Coast Forest.
-Lowing growing season days. About 250 days/year.
-Some examples of this natural vegetation are Douglas fir, Sitka, Spruce and red cedar trees.
-The tree species are popular because of year-round warm climate, rich soil and precipitation.
-Contain temperature rainforest about
106 000 square km. - Coastal regions and marine zones support wildlife like birds.
- Marine animals: northern fun and harbor seals, northern sea lions, killer, grey and blue whales, otter
- fish: salmon, herring, trout, smelt,lamprey, sturgeon
- Land animals: black and grizzly bears, mountain lions/cougars, black-tailed deer, fisher, american pika
- Birds: tufted puffin, owl, bald eagle, blue grouse, chestnut-backed chickadee, and mountain quail, sea birds, woodpeckers, red tailed hawk
- Amphibians/reptiles: western toads, tailed, wood and pacific frogs, northwestern, pacific giant and western red- back salamander, rough-skin newt, garter, sharp-tail and western terrestrial garter snakes, leather-back and green turtles, northern alligator lizards
-Construction. This sector of industry in Pacific Maritime Ecozone is the supporting stream of Secondary industry.
-Maritime Ecozone focuses on constructing new houses, condos, repairing, engineering Construction
-Manufacturing. The manufacturing industry focus on making the semi-finished product the primary industry produced into finished products such as refined ores, paper, and canned salmon.
-Manufacturing industry is very important in its economy. It ranks second employer in the goods sector, and it’s the fourth largest in the entire economy. The tertiary industry of Pacific Maritime Ecozone consists 11 main industry grouping; wholesale & retail trade, health care & social assistance, accommodation & food service, professional, scientific & technical services, education services, finance, insurance, real estate & leasing, transportation & warehousing, information, culture & recreation, public administration & defence, business, building & other support services, other services. -Pacific Maritime ecozone consists of wet and warm climate.
- The wet and warm climate gives Pacific Maritime ecozone a Maritime climate characteristic.
- Pacific Maritime ecozone has a low temperature range. The temperature range is only 14.5 degree Celsius. (The summer temperature is about 13 degree Celsius and winter temperature is about -1.5 degree Celsius.)
-The temperature range is caused by the Pacific Ocean, a large body of water that moderates the inland temperature.
-Because of the Pacific Ocean, the average annual temperature is only 9.8 degree Celsius.
-Another factor that produces the wet and warm climate of Pacific Maritime ecozone is a warm ocean current called “North Pacific Current.” This ocean current runs up the West Coast of Canada and warms the air above it. - The annual precipitation of Pacific Maritime Ecozone is about 1048mm.
- The high precipitation is due to the existence of Rocky Mountain. Rocky Mountain acts a barrier of warm and moist prevailing winds evaporated from the Pacific Ocean. As the warm and moist wind rises when it hits the Rocky Mountain. As the wind rises, it loses its heat and condenses resulting precipitation. Therefore, most precipitation fall in British Columbia rather than interior plain region. Over exploited forestry, water pollution resulted from mining and air pollutions are 3 major impacts the city of Vancouver have on its local natural environment. These major impacts are already starting to interrupt the well-being of its local ecosystem and they will continue to change the stats of the ecosystem in the future.
Firstly, mining industries have existed in Vancouver for more than 100 years and unfortunately, it results serious water pollution to the ground waters affecting people living in the greater Victoria area and greater Vancouver area. The mining industries pollutes the water in 4 different ways; acid mine drainage, processing chemicals pollutions, erosion and sedimentation, and heavy metal contamination and leaching. The polluted water has serious health effects on any organism that consumes it and it has negative effects on organism that makes contacts with it.
Secondly, forestry have been always one of the main economic activity in Vancouver. However, the recent forest logging method and the result of over-exploiting of the forest had dramatically decrease the availability of the forest. Recent logging companies clear all the forest in an area entirely at one time using a method called, "Clear-cutting." When logging companies use this logging method, it threaten the survival of species which depend on the forest. The removal of forest at once can also result soil degradation and creates habitat destruction. Identification of a town with effects and predictions Lastly, in Vancouver there are a variety of emission entering the atmosphere in a pollutant form. In Vancouver, these emission comes from automobiles, burning of fossil fuel, mining and refining metals. The combustion of these fossil fuel produces surphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. When these gases mixes with the moisture in the atmosphere, a new compound called, "acid rain" is created. Acid rain can destroy the waxy outer layer protecting the plants from infection, increase the acidity of the soil and affect the root’s ability to absorb nutrient, and increase the acidity of the ocean and kill organism that are sensitive to acidity.
Two future changes may happen to the surrounding environment of city of Vancouver as a result of these impacts are habitat change and interruption of food web in local ecosystem. Habitat change will eventually happen in Vancouver due to the removal of forest entirely from an area using clear cutting. Habitat change will limit its space to live, its amount of food, and the chance for that species to survival. One other future change would happen to the environment around Vancouver is the interruption of food web due to acid rain. Acid rains damage the roots, waxy outer layer of plants, and increase the acidity of the ocean. These effects will decrease the population of the producers that are the base of the food chain. A lower population of producer will results less food available on top of the food chain. Therefore, the entire food web is affected and damaged. Explanation of connection between characteristics of ecozone The most influential characteristic of the Pacific Maritime ecozone is the landforms. The type of landforms in this ecozone determines what climate, vegetation, soil, and living creatures are there. This ecozone is mainly taken up by mountains that overlook the ecozone to the coast. Along the pacific coast are flat plains and ever so often are fijords and channels that cut through the mountains.
The climate in this region is related to the landform because the mountains have an impact on the amount of precipitation and temperature of the ecozone. Because the mountains and so young and tall, they become a barrier of warm and moist winds evaporated from the Pacific Ocean. As the moist air reaches the top of the mountain, it loses its heat and condenses resulting in heavy amounts of precipitation. The temperature is also affected because the warm and moist air that the mountains bring contributes to the temperature of the ecozone. The soils in this ecozone are influenced by the climate. The soils here are moist and contain a lot of humus and minerals because of all the water they receive. The soils are leached because there is so much water that it is forced to push the minerals deep into the soil. Because of all the mountain ranges in this part of Canada, there are a lot of rocks and minerals that come from them. Many of the substances mined are from under the mountains including copper coal, and zinc.
The natural vegetation of an area depends on the climate and landform of it. Since the land in the Pacific Maritime is mostly mountains, the only trees that can be sustained are year round trees that don’t shed. These species can be supported by the rich soil and precipitation of this ecozone without having trouble surviving. Also, the climate plays a factor in what natural vegetation is able to grow in this ecozone because some species of flora can only live to survive in certain temperatures. The Pacific Maritime is warm enough to support palm trees and many of the trees here can live to be very old. The animals and wildlife in the Pacific Maritime ecozone and meant to live in environments of moist and mountainous regions. The landform affects which animals live there because only certain species can live in the conditions that the Pacific Maritime ecozone brings. The land that the animals are given influences their habitat and it is very important to live in a habitat that can support the species. The climate plays an important factor in what wildlife stays or goes in the ecozone. Many animals cannot live through cold winters or warm summers and this also affects the species that are able to live in the community.
In the land and climate the humans are given, we can only produce certain products, work certain jobs depending on the place we are in. In the Pacific Maritime ecozone, the people there are limited to resources and land to develop products so their industries depend on what they have there. Their main primary industry is fishing, logging and farming because the land is primarily mountains, and forests, perfect for forestry and fishing. Also, the soil is rich and fertile enough for good agriculture. The type of work that they do requires resources that they can access and having the right landform will give them the right products. Primary Industry
-Forestry. The forest are turned into paper pulp to build house, paper etc. to satisfy export demand. In the past 120 years, over 2 million hectares of temperate coastal rainforest were cleared. Habitat change occurs in these area. Some animals lost their habitat because of clear-cutting.
-Fishery. Pacific Maritime ecozone consists a great variety of fish species; Coho Salmon, Sockeye. Coho Salmon are over exploited, and is threaten. Also, fish species are contaminated in Pacific Maritime. Bioaccumulation occurs in Salmon and can damage human’s health.
-Agricultural. The southern part of Pacific Maritime has nutrient rich topsoil and its climate is suitable for growing fruit trees.