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The Cold War Crises: Berlin, Cuba and Czechoslovakia

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Michael Brodie

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of The Cold War Crises: Berlin, Cuba and Czechoslovakia

The Cold War Crises: Berlin, Cuba and Czechoslovakia 1957-69
Crisis One - Berlin 1961
This is a picture taken in Berlin in 1961.

Answer these questions:

1) What can we learn about Soviet-American relations at the time from the picture?

2) How far have relations changed from the Berlin Blockade of 1948?
Learning Objectives
Know - The key elements of the Berlin Crisis

Understand - Why the Berlin Wall was constructed.

Skills -Causation
Success Criteria
What were the causes of the Berlin Crisis of 1961?
Describes causes of the Berlin Crisis.
Explains causes of the Berlin Crisis
Can use evidence to defend Soviet action in Berlin.
TASK - Berlin Mind Map
Use pages 50-52 to create a mind map to explain the causes of the Berlin Crisis of 1961.
Extension - How similar were the causes of the Berlin Crisis of 1948 to that of 1961? Explain your answer.
Steps to success:
1) Identify the different causes and give information about them.
2) Identify the long and short term causes.
3) Identify the trigger cause.
4) Identify the preconditions (those that had to be there.)

Answer the questions in the book on pages 51 and 52.
TASK - Write a speech addressing the United Nations from the point of view of Nikita Khruschev defending Soviet action in Berlin.
Success Criteria:
*Explain Soviet action in Berlin.
*Refer to the causes and events.
*Explain why the Soviet Union might feel threatened.
*Use emotive language - Khruschev would have!!
What were the consequences of the 1961 Berlin Crisis?
Learning Objectives
Know - How the Berlin Crisis unfolded.

Understand - The long term effects of the Berlin Crisis.

Skills - Consequence
Success Criteria
Describes the consequences of the Berlin Crisis.
Explains the consequences of the Berlin Crisis.
Can answer exam format questions.
TASK: Exam Practise.
Consequences of the Berlin Crisis.
1) Khrushchev was able to to avoid war with America while still appearing strong - America complained but it was not worth a war.

2) Berlin was permanently split in two. It would remain so for over 28 years.

3) The Berlin Wall would become one of the key symbols of the conflict and of the division of Europe.

4) East Germans were stopped from escaping to West Berlin - the refugee crisis was resolved.

5) Tension further increased - both stepped up nuclear testing.
Answer the question on the sheet. All are in the format of questions you might get asked in the exam.
Dingbats
Crisis Two: The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
What's this all about?
Why did Khrushchev place Missiles on Cuba?
Learning Objectives
Know - The key causes of the Cuban Missile Crisis

Understand - How e

Skills
Success Criteria
Describes reasons for the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Explains reasons for the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Categorises, ranks and evaluates causes of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
How did the arms race develop during the 1950s?
KEY QUESTION
Imagine a class with a really tough and nasty teacher. After a while, that teacher leaves, and a more gentle, reasonable teacher takes over.
Will behaviour in the class get better or worse?
Learning Objectives
Know - Key features of the arms race.

Understand - How the arms race increased tension and suspicion.

Skills - Cause and Consequence and source analysis.
Success Criteria
Read page 56 and answer these questions
1) Who do you think had the military advantage between the USA and USSR in 1961. Use evidence to support your answer.

2) Why was the USA so worried about the launch of Sputnik in 1957?

3) Briefly explain the key features of the arms race in the 1950s (Exam Practise - 6 marks.)
The B-52 Bomber had a range of over 6,000 miles and could be carry a nuclear bomb.

It could also be refueled in mid air!
The U-2 Spy plane had the ability to read newspaper headlines from 12 miles above.!
How do you think these developments made the Soviets feel?
Analyses a source for its message, purpose and usefulness.
Describes the features of the arms race in the 1950s.
Explains how these key features increased tension.
If this is the answer what is the question?
1) Sputnik.
2) U-2 Spy plane.
3) "balance of terror"
4) 1957.
5) NASA
6) Space Race
Briefly explain the key features of the arms race in the 1950s (Exam Practise - 6 marks.)

You need 2 or more developed statements to get 5 or 6 marks.
TASK- Cuban Missile Crisis Role Play
What caused the Cuban Missile Crisis?
The Cuban Revolution (1959)
The Cuban Revolution of 1959, led by Fidel Castro and Che Guevarra, overthrew the pro-American dictatorship of Batista - the new government seized American assets in Cuba. In response, America banned imports of Cuban sugar; this threatened to bankrupt the island. In response, Cuba turned to the USSR for aid.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (April 1961)
In 1960, President Kennedy devised a new plan to deal with the problem of having a country sympathetic to communism in their back garden. He planned to overthrow Castro and replace him with a pro-American government.

Kennedy thought the Castro's government was unpopular and that when a small, CIA-backed, military force of Cuban exiles landed, people would quickly support a change in government. They were wrong. The force was defeated within two days of landing in April 1961.
Missile Bases
Despite defeating the invasion of 1961, Cuba still felt vulnerable to attack and so asked the USSR for help.

In August 1961, Khrushchev decided to place Russian nuclear weapons on Cuba. This, he thought, would stop America from attempting another invasion.

It would also mean that Russia could strike America without developing very expensive inter-continental missiles. On 14 October 1962 - A U-2 Spy Plane took photographs which showed missile basis under construction. This posed a serious threat to US security.
The Arms Race
The Cuban Missile Crisis lasted 13 days between 16-28 October 1962.

On the 16 October Kennedy was informed that Khrushchev's plan to put nuclear missiles on Cuba.

From this moment on he had to make an incredibly difficult decision concerning what action to take.

Your task is to follow in his footsteps and make and justify your decision.
Kennedy had to choose from 6 choices.

1) An air attack against all military sites in Cuba.
2) Invasion of Cuba by US Armed Forces.
3) An air strike on known Cuban missile bases.
4) Blockade Cuba with the US Navy - do not allow any Russian ships through.
5) Do nothing - allow missiles to be based in Cuba.
6) Attack Cuba and the USSR with nuclear weapons.

You need to choose one option but think of advantages and disadvantages for each.
Learning Objectives
Know - Key features of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Understand -What caused the Cuban Missile Crisis and how close the world got to nuclear war.

Skills - Cause and Consequence.
Success Criteria
Makes a judgement supported by evidence on who won the Cuban Missile Crisis.


Explains why the Cuban Missile Crisis took place and what the consequences were.


Describes features of the Cuban Missile Crisis
TASK: Consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Read pages 106-7 and complete the following:

1) Make a list with explanation of the immediate and long-term consequences of the crisis.


2) Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis? Refer to both the USSR and USA and use evidence to support your answer.
1943-1962 Revision Session
Learning Objectives
Know - The key events between 1943-1962.

Understand - How they are linked and why they are significant

Skills - Chronology, Significance
Success Criteria
"All sides benefited from the Cuban Missile Crisis."
No
Yes
TASK - Cold War Jigsaw
Each of you has a Cold War event.

You will have 10 minutes to research the event. Use the textbooks - especially the index!

You need to record:
*The month and year.
* A description of the event.
* Why it is important.
* A consequence of the event.
* Another event it is linked to.
Arrange yourselves in chronological order.
Arrange yoursleves in groups of linked events - minimum of two to each group. Which event is linked to most other events?
Rank yourselves in order of significance (had the biggest and most wide-ranging effect).
Split yourselves into Soviet action, American action or both.
Describes key events in the period 1943-1962.
Explains links between key events in the period 1943-1962
Judges the significance of key events in the period 1943-1962
Crisis Three: The Czechoslovakian Crisis 196 (The Prague Spring)
Learning Objectives
Know - What the Prague Spring was and who the key actors were.

Understand - Why the Prague Spring began and why the Soviet Union intervened.

Skills - Causation
Success Criteria
Describes what happened in Czechoslovakia in 1968.
Categorises and explains the causes of the Prague Spring and Soviet intervention.
Makes a judgement supported by evidence on whether Soviet Intervention was justified.
Why did the Soviet Union intervene in Czechoslovakia?
Explain how the Prague Spring links to the key events/trends.
1) What did it mean to be a Soviet Satellite State?
2) Why might there be tensions in these countries?
Alexander Dubcek
Leonin Brezhnev
Who were the key players in Czechoslovakia in 1968?
Antonin Novotny
*Ex communist guerrilla
*Leader of Czechoslovakia since 1957.
*Unpopular - hardline communist who supported Stalin, even after he died!
*Ex communist guerrilla.
*Supported private enterprise (capitalism).
*Held liberal social views.
*Managed to secure the dismissal of Novotny in 1967.
*Dubcek was appointed First Secretary of the Communist Party in January 1968.
*Became leader of the Soviet Union in 1964 after forcing Khrushchev out.
*Did not agree with the liberal reforms of Khrushchev in the USSR.

http://www.soviethistory.org/index.php?page=subject&show=video&SubjectID=1968czechoslovakia&Year=1968&navi=byYear
On 19 January 1969 a shocking event took place in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

A student named Jan Palach, removed his coat and opened a bottle of liquid. He then proceeded to pour the liquid over himself.

Palach then pulled a box of matches from his jacket and lit a match. He was immediately engulfed by flames.

Onlookers eventually put out the flames by beating him with their coats. Palach, who was still conscious demanded they read a letter he had left in a nearby briefcase.

Palach was rushed to hospital but later died from his burns.
Your task today is to find out why he took such drastic action.
In 1968 there was a crisis in Czechoslovakia.

Scrutinise the following images. Then write down as much as possible about what you think you have learned about the crisis from them.
Was the Soviet Union justified in its intervention?
*NATO
*Soviet expansionism.
*Hungarian Uprising.
*Warsaw Pact.
Brezhnev's Response
Using the course cards write a SHORT speech to members of the Warsaw Pact from the perspective of Leonid Brezhnev justifying Soviet action in Czechoslovakia in August 1968.
Separate the cards into:
Between February and April 1968, the communist Czechoslovakian leader, Alexander Dubcek, introduced a number of important reforms to the Soviet satellite state.
Why might these anger the USSR?
Using the cards we have identified as the causes of the Prague Spring, code them into:
Causes of Soviet intervention
Causes of the Prague Spring
Extension - Identify the most important cause of the Prague Spring and the most important cause of Soviet intervention and explain why.
Long-term causes - give these LT
Short-term causes - give these ST
Trigger Cause - gives this a TC
Necessary causes (had to be therefore the Prague Spring to happen) - give these NC.

Some will fit into more than one category!!
YES
NO
Learning Objectives
Know - Key features of the Czechoslovakian crisis and their consequences.

Understand - How the Czechoslovakian crisis affected relations between the Soviet Union and America

Skills - Cause and Consequence and Significance.
Success Criteria
Homework: Explain why relations between the Soviet Union and the USA changed in the years 1957-1969. (13 marks)
Describes key features and consequences of the Czechoslovakian Crisis.
Explains key features and consequences of the Czechoslovakian Crisis and draws links between it and other events.
Describe the key features of the Czechslovakian Crisis? (6 marks)
Outline of what happened.
Soviet Response
Czech Response
Planning Stage - Complete the table with bullet points so that we can answer the question - p. 70 (Green) and pp. 109-112 (Purple)
NATO response
Describe the Key Features of the Czechoslovakian Crisis. (6 marks)
*A simple statement (1 mark)
*Two simple statements (2 marks)
*Three simple statements (3 marks)
One developed statement supported by factual detail (4-5 marks)
Two or more developed statements (5-6 marks)
Explain the importance of the Czechoslovakian Crisis in international relations (5 marks) - As part of 15 mark question.
What were the key features and consequences of the Czechoslovakian Crisis?
Now let's peer assess
Use the mark scheme to mark each others work. Give the response a mark out of 5.
*Describes the event without considering importance (1 mark).
*Describes the event or action and states importance. (2-3 marks).
*Explains importance, with detailed factual support (4-5 marks).
TASK:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir2/czechoslovakia1968_video.shtml
Use p.68 (Green) to add the Prague Spring forms to the petals of your flower.
Planning Stage - Explain the importance of the Czechoslovakian Crisis in international relations (5 marks)
Czechoslovakia
Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact
Planning Stage - Complete the table with bullet points so that we can answer the question - pp. 71-72 Green) and pp. 109-112 (Purple)
USA
Western Europe
Successfully answers exam style questions on the Czechoslovakian Crisis.
3-6 - Describes Causes
7-10 - Explains causes.
11-13 Marks -Prioritises causes or sees link between them.

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