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Structure and function of the respiratory system.

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by

Loren Bleaken

on 14 March 2014

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Transcript of Structure and function of the respiratory system.

Bronchi
As the trachea splits into two sections, it forms the left and right bronchi. They both carry air into the lungs but are slightly different in structure. The right is wider, shorter and more upright than the left. When the air reaches the bronchi it is warm and is saturated with water vapour.
Bronchioles
Once the bronchi enter into the lungs, the left bronchi subdivides into two lobar bronchi and the right into three lobar bronchi. Each of these then divide into smaller and smaller bronchi. All together there are around 23 branching bronchial airways. Bronchioles are smaller than 1mm in diameter.
This is linked to O2 touch as they allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood to be able to supply the working muscles with oxygen to be able to contract, allowing players to continue.
The lungs
Larynx
pharynx
The pharynx connects the nasal cavity and the mouth to the larynx and esophagus. The pharynx walls are skeletal muscles. The pharynx is at the bottom of the skull down to the 6th cervical vertebra.

The structure of the pharynx helps when playing O2 touch, as we take deep breaths during exercise, air goes through in mouth more and then goes to the lungs to be transported to the muscles.
Nasal cavity
The nose is the only external part of the respiratory system and the internal part is the nasal cavity. During inspiration air rushes through the nostrils and the hairs in the naval cavity filters the dust and pollen particles. The nasal cavity has two mucous membranes which traps bacteria and then secretes antibacterial enzymes to destroy them.
Structure and function of the respiratory system.
Epiglottis
The epiglottis is a part of the larynx which is a flap of cartilage which prevents food from entering the trachea when swallowing food by covering the opening to the airway.
This can relate to when playing O2 touch, after the match when the player is having a recovery snack, the epiglottis will cover the airway allowing food to go down the correct passage
Trachea
The trachea is the main windpipe which follows down from the larynx, through the neck and leads down between the lungs splitting into two bronchi before going into the lungs. The trachea is roughly 12cm long and 2cm in diameter and is flexible and able to move.
During inspiration air rushes through the nostrils and the hairs in the naval cavity filters the dust and pollen particles. The nasal cavity has two mucous membranes which secrete antibacterial enzymes which attack the bacteria which is breathed in. This structure is important to allow for maximal efficiency of the respiratory when playing O2 touch, when breathing in during less intense exercise, air can go into the nasal cavity as enough air can get through without needing deep breaths.
This larynx consists of cartilage and has a added section which is known as the Adam's apple. The larynx is situated between the pharynx and the trachea and extends 5 cm from the 3rd-6th vertebra and leads to the windpipe .
The larynx also produces sounds (our voice), so when playing O2 touch players are able to communicate which each other about passes to make or instructions about play.
During O2 touch, the trachea allows the air to flow from the nasal cavity, pharynx, through the airway of the larynx and into either bronchi of the trachea to enter the lungs to be able to supply the working muscles with oxygen to keep playing.
The lungs take up most of the thoracic cavity, the heart is on the left so the left lung is slightly smaller than the right. The lungs play a massive role in maximizing the efficiency of the respiratory system during exercise (O2 touch) as it distributes the oxygen and then we breath out carbon dioxide.
Each lung are divided into lobes, the left lung has two and the right has three. Each one of the lobes receives air from an individual bronchi and has its own artery and vein.
Deep breath of air
Pharynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Air travels
Nasal cavity
Epiglottis
Larynx
The structure of the trachea splitting into two bronchi is important to allow the maximum efficiency for oxygen to be able to get to the each lung. So when playing O2 touch, the air breathed in is able to get to each lung efficiently to be able to be diffused into the blood to reach the working muscles.
Bronchioles
The pleural membrane encloses each lung keeping it air tight, away from each other. If for some reason one of the lungs gets punctured because of an accident which could maybe occur when playing O2 touch, the other lung will work as normal because it will be air tight due to the pleural cavity around that lung. This is a very efficient structure providing the maximum efficiency for the respiratory system.


Pleural membrane ( parietal pleura and visceral pleura)
Lobes
The parietal pleura covers the top of the diaphragm, thoracic wall, around the heart and goes between the two lungs. It is also the outer layer of the two membranes.
The visceral pleura is the membrane on the inside of the parietal pleura, which slots into the spaces between the lobes and covers the surface of the lungs.
The tiny space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura i called the pleural cavity which is filled with pleural fluid.
Pleural fluid fills in the space between the membranes allowing the lungs to move smoothly across the thorax during respiration. The fluid produces surface tension which keeps it in contact with the chest wall.
When breathing, a negative pressure is experienced which keeps the movement of the lungs similar to the movement of the chest, keeping them close.
pleural cavity - full of pleural fluid
Pleural cavity
Thoracic cavity
This cavity is protected by the thoracic wall and is parted from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm.
2 lobes
3 lobes
Alveoli

Aveoli are air sacks on the end of the bronchioles which account for most of the lung pressure and gaseous exchange.
Gases exchange by diffusion across the respiratory membrane. Oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the lungs.
alveoli
Diaphragm
When breathing in, the diaphragm contracts causing the thoracic cavity volume to increase, which makes air rush into the lungs.
When breathing out, the diaphragm relaxes decreasing the volume of the thoracic cavity pushing the air out.

This is an important part of respiration during exercise (O2 touch) as more air is needed in the body and carbon dioxide needs to be breathed out.
Intercostal muscles
The intercostal muscles are found between the ribs; these muscles contract and extend helping with breathing in and out.

These muscles are important for when playing sport (O2 touch) as breathing in and out is assential when trying to get more oxygen to supply the muscles and to breath Co2 out.
The external intercostals increase the volume of the thoracic cavity drawing air into the lungs when breathing in as the ribs are pulled upwards and outwards.
External intercostal muscles
Rib
external intercostal muscle
internal intercostal muscle
Rib
Internal intercostal muscles
When breathing out the internal intercostal muscles pull the ribs down and inwards which decreases the volume of the thoracic cavity, pushing the air out of the lungs.
Function - transport
Oxygen is breathed into the lungs and is diffused into the blood via the surface of the aveoli in the capillaries and combines with haemoglobin which are in the red blood cells, then forming oxyhaemoglobin. Depending on the concentration of the blood results in the amount of oxygen taken up by the blood to reach equilibrium.
Carbon dioxide is carried to the veins via the cardiovascular system where it is diffused into the lungs and then breathed out as a waste product of aerobic processes.
Haemoglobin is the component which carries oxygen in red blood cells. It is a protein which can combine with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin.
Oxyhaemoglobin is formed when oxygen combines with haemoglobin. It is then carried in the blood to
body tissues/muscles where the oxygen is released by tissue respiration.
Mechanisms of breathing
Mechanisms of breathing
Tidal volume
Inspiratory reserve volume
Expiratory reserve volume
Respiratory volumes
This is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled per breath.
During an O2 touch rugby match, a players tidal volume will increase up to around 3-4L.
At rest we breath in and out around 500cm3, 350cm3 of which reach the alveoli, the rest fills the pharynx, larynx, bronchi and bronchioles.
So during a match a player's tidal volume will increase as more oxygen is needed by the body.
You can also breath in up to an additional 3,000cm3 extra of fresh air as well as the usual 350cm3.
This is really important when i comes to playing in a match situation as you will have a reserve volume for when you are really tired during the game and that extra reserve could keep you going for a bit longer.
The expiratory reserve volume you are able to breath out is up to 1500cm3. This is what is left in the lungs after you
exhale as much as possible
Vital capacity
This is the volume of air that can be breathed out after you have already breathed out maximal respiration. The volume is usually 4,800cm3.
During exercise such as O2 touch, a players vital capacity will be a lot less as muscles are using a larger amount of oxygen to provide energy and are also producing carbon dioxide as a by product which needs to be breathed out.
Residual volume
This is the volume of air left in the lungs after maximal exhalation, there will always be some air left in the lungs as this stops the lungs from collapsing.
As the body works hard in exercise, the respiratory system works hard as well. Breathing in deeply to supply working muscles with the oxygen needed. People lose their breath because there is not enough O2 stored when you exhale to meet the body's requirements. Trained athletes have higher residual volumes as they are trained and can control breathing .
Total lung capacity
This is the volume of air that can be contained in the lungs after you have breathed in as much as you can.
The more trained an athlete is, the larger their total vital capacity, the bigger their total lung capacity will be. They will then be able to take fuller, deeper and more oxygen-rich breaths.
Neural control
During exercise the player would be concentrating more on the game situation than their breathing.
During exercise pulmonary ventilation increases, which increases depth and rate of breathing.

Chemical control
Other factors controlling breathing are constantly changing the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Control of breathing
The respiratory muscles are under involuntary control of the respiratory control centre which is located in the brain.
The main receptors which send you information when playing a O2 touch match are;
Chemoreceptors which send information to the inspiration centre like; increase of Co2, decrease in O2 and an increase in acidity.
Propriorecptors
These are located in the muscles and joints which send information to the inspiratory centre of the movement of the working muscles during exercise.
Thermoreceptors
During exercise blood temperature will increase, which is detected by the thermoreceptors which send information to the inspiratory centre.
Baroreceptors
These are located in the lungs and detect the extent to how much the lungs are inflating during inspiration.
I'm annotating the first 4 and half minutes of this video and discussing the transportation of oxygen. (in the last slide)
Throughout the 4 and half minutes you can see that a few players made long runs with the ball. They would have been breathing heavily as more oxygen is needed to accommodate to the burst of speed. The players which are making very short runs will be breathing less deeper as not as much oxygen is needed.
All the players breathing rates will be higher than at rest as they are all running around, some will need more oxygen than others as their muscles are creating more movement so need the oxygen. Also the players will be breathing out carbon dioxide which is a waste product of respiration.
During O2 touch you take deep breaths in so the external intercostal muscles need to work hard to increase the thoracic cavity so that enough air is able to get into the lungs.
When breathing out the internal intercostal muscles will need to be able to work hard to pull the ribs down and inwards for the air to be pushed out of the lungs ready for another deep breath.
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