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Analysing Media Products and Audiences | INCEPTION

Cambridge Technicals | Media | Unit 1

Sam Rickard

on 13 June 2014

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Transcript of Analysing Media Products and Audiences | INCEPTION

British Board of Film Classification ( )
TASK 1 | P1
by Sam Rickard
The company that distributed and produced "INCEPTION" are 'Warner Brothers Pictures'. The company was founded in 1918 by Albert, Harry, Sam and Jack Warner. The company is part of the entertainment industry, and specialises in the making of film and television products.
Operating Model
Warner Bros. distribute their own films and TV shows. They also have several secondary companies, including Warner Bros. Studios, Warner Bros. Pictures, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, Warner Bros. Television, Warner Bros. Animation, Warner Home Video, New Line Cinema, TheWB.com, and DC Entertainment

Warner Bros. Pictures brings together the Studio’s motion picture production, marketing and distribution operations into a single entity. The Group, which includes Warner Bros. Pictures and Warner Bros. Pictures International, was formed to streamline the Studio’s film production process and bring those businesses’ organisational structures in line with Warner Bros.’ television and home entertainment operations.Warner Bros. Pictures produces and distributes a wide-ranging slate of some 18-22 films each year, employing a business model that reduces risk while maximising productivity and capital. Warner Bros. Pictures either fully finances or co-finances the films it produces and maintains worldwide distribution rights.
Warner Bros. has made many films over the course of 94 years. It has produced films such as: ‘the Hangover’, ‘the Matrix’, ‘Lethal Weapon’ & ‘the Lord of the Rings’ Trilogy. They also produced the Harry Potter series, which became the biggest franchise of all time. Upcoming projects include ‘the Hobbit’ trilogy and ‘the Hangover Part III’.
Warner Bros. also produce their own cartoons, creating classics such as ‘Scooby Doo!’. They also own D.C. Comics, so they produce all of D.C. films such as ‘The Dark Knight’ and ‘Man of Steel’. They will also cross promote D.C. through the TV shows that Warner Bros. produce such as ‘the Big Bang Theory’.
Marketing Position
Warner Bros. was a pioneer in the film industry. They are currently ranked the top grossing production company in the world, grossing a whopping $29,135,050,869 from 1995 to 2012.

Warner bros currently is producer of film, television, and music entertainment. Because they are subsidiary to ‘Time Warner’, they also have access to other divisions of the company, such as D.C. Comics and HBO. This means that the company produces all films that are based around D.C. comics property such as Batman and Superman. Warner Bros. Pictures is considered part of the ‘Big Six’, which also include: Universal Pictures; 20th Century Fox; Walt Disney Pictures; Paramount Pictures and Columbia Pictures.
Universal Pictures is responsible for creating blockbuster films such as ‘Back to the Future’, ‘Jurassic Park’, ‘E.T.’ and ‘Jaws’ which is considered to be the worlds first summer blockbuster.

20th Century Fox were responsible for creating classic film franchises such as ‘Die Hard’ and ‘Star Wars’

Walt Disney Pictures focuses entirely on a younger audience creating fairytale animations such as ‘Snow White and the Seven Dwarves’ and ‘Sleeping Beauty’. Their more popular films nowadays are created by ‘Pixar Studios’, who are owned by Disney have created film franchises such as ‘Toy Story’ and ‘Cars’

Paramount pictures are responsible for creating classic films such as ‘the Godfather’ and ‘Sunset Boulevard’, as well as creating new modern film franchises such as ‘Transformers’, ‘Star Trek’. They also own a animation company called ‘Dream-works Pictures’ that compete along-side Disney’s Pixar with film franchises such as ‘Shrek’ and ‘Kung Fu Panda’

Columbia Pictures are responsible for creating classic films such as ‘Taxi Driver’, ‘the Shawshank Redemption’ and ‘Ghostbusters’
TASK 2 | P2, M1 & D1
by Sam Rickard
Intially, the films intentions financially were to produce a film that would be seen as a summer blockbuster that can make as much profit as possible, since they were competing amongst other well known summer heavy weights such as the annual Marvel super hero films.

Overall, the film was financially successful, with its budget estimated to be around $160,000,000; the film grossed $825,532,764 in total. The majority of the films budget would probably have been spent on the films special effects, where as other summer blockbusters may spend more of their films budget on the actors.
The film 'INCEPTION' was directed by the genius Christopher Nolan, who had previously directed smash hit 'the Dark Knight'. There are many words to describe this movie, and those are: mind-bending, imaginative, exciting, overwhelming, entertaining, and awesome.

There were many scenes which I believe that will be seen as iconic in the far future, as few other hollywood films come up with such originals ideas, such as the scene where paris bends over and mirrors itself. People will be able to relate to this film more than other summer blockbusters, because the main idea behind the film are the power of dreams, something that every person has experienced and can relate to on some level; as well as the main theme of the film was religion.

The majority of the shots in the film have high contrast lighting, as the shots are bright but are also filled with shadows to create uncertainty and doubt for both the characters and the audience. There are many oblique angle shots within the film (mainly during dream sequences), which creates a sense of fantasy which few other films can parrallel.

"Inception" is very unique and it is fresh to everybody. The story is interesting and mind-bending. The action scenes and visuals are overwhelming and were mixed in with realistic CGI effects. The performances were great. Leonardo DiCaprio is great as the main protagonist; Cillian Murphy is one of the best parts of the movie; and Joseph Gordon-Levitt's performance is flawless." Inception" is mind-bending and non-stop entertaining.
TASK 3 | P3, M2 & D2
by Sam Rickard
Audio/Visual Review
Audience Profile
Audience Profile
Questionnaire Analysis
- What made you want to see Inception?

- Did the film meet your expectations?

- What was your favourite scene in the film?

- Do you think the film was overly complicated?

- Which actor or actress do you think stood out in the film?

- What did you think of Han Zimmer’s soundtrack for the film?

- Have you ever seen any other film directed by Christopher Nolan before?

- Have you seen the Dark Knight Rises?

- Which film did you think was better and why?

- What did you think of the ending?
Discussion Points
Focus Group
TASK 4 | P4
by Sam Rickard
TASK 5 | P5 & M3
by Sam Rickard
Audience Effects Questionnaire
Audience Effects Questionnaire Survey
Legal Constraints
The British Board of Film Classification is a independent company funded by the film industry and is responsible for the national classification and censorship of films within the United Kingdom; but is not under the influence of the british government. The organisation is legally obligated to classify Videos, DVDs and a few Video-games under the Video Recordings Act of 2010.

Their vision statement states that they are “passionate about the moving image” and feel that it is their “duty to protect with respect to the right to freedom of expression”. This means that although they feel it is their duty to classify and censor, it is important to respect the film and the point the director is trying to put across. It also states that they “acknowledge and reflect the cultural diversity of the UK” and want to “anticipate and embrace change”. This will reflect in how they classify and censor films, as they will make suggestions to studios, based on many different cultural aspects in the UK such as Religion.
12 - A 12 rating means that anyone aged 12 or over can go and see the film unaccompanied.

12a - The A stands for 'accompanied'. Children younger than 12 may see the film if they are accompanied by someone over the age of 18

15 - Videos, DVD’s and Video Games are not suitable for children under 15 years of age.

18 - Videos, DVD’s and Video Games are not suitable for individuals that are under 18 years of age.
BBFC - Rating Criteria:
The BBFC look at entire films and video-games, and then award them with an appropriate age rating. In order to protect children from unsuitable content in films and videos and to give consumers information they might need to know about before viewing it, the BBFC examines and age rates films and videos before they are released.
Typically, two examiners view a film for theatrical release. In most cases a Senior Examiner will confirm the examiners’ recommendation. But if the Examiners are in any doubt or fail to agree, or if important policy issues are involved, the work may be seen by other members of the Board up to, and including, the Director and Presidential team. A similar principle is set when it comes to classifying video-games.
The BBFC look at issues such as discrimination, drugs, horror, dangerous and easily imitable behaviour, language, nudity, sex, and violence when making decisions. The theme of the work is also an important consideration. We also consider context, the tone and likely impact of a work on the potential audience.
Decisions on the age rating of DVDs, Blu-rays and Video-games will occasionally be stricter than at the cinema because there is a higher risk of underage viewing in the home.
BBFC - Classification:
There are several scenes in the film where the characters have to commit suicide to escape the dream. There is also a part of the narrative that involves suicide, with Cobbs wife trying to persuade him that by dying together they will never be apart, resulting in her throwing herself off a building. The violence however, is mitigated by the fact that it generally takes place in the dreamworld, but this certain scene takes place in the real world so it might still be seen as an controversial issue.
Controversial Features about the Film
The film contains various scenes of moderate violence. These include several gunfights, with occasional glimpses of blood as bullets find their marks. There are a couple of long fight sequences where violent blows are exchanged between the combatants. The violence is mitigated somewhat by the fact that it tends to take place in the dreamworld, with the protagonists harassed by assailants generated by the dreamers subconscious. The BBFC's '12A'/'12' Guidelines state that 'Moderate violence is allowed but should not dwell on detail. There should be no emphasis on injuries or blood'. The scenes of violence, while often extended, do not dwell on any detail. Similarly, the few scenes of injury detail do not emphasise blood or injuries, even when some blood is visible. The overall fantastical context of the film further reduces the impact of the scenes.Overall, I believe that the BBFC plays an important role as they tell studios whether their film is suitable for target audience, and whether its overall suitable for british audiences.This is important as it means that certain films get cut down in terms of violence, gore and sexuality. An example of this would be the film Immortals, which was given an “18” rating by the BBFC; but the studio decided to cut the british version of the film down to fit the rating of “15”, as it would be more profitable, where as in other countries such as the USA, the MPAA allowed the original cut of the film to be shown as a “R’, which is the equivalent of a 15/18.
Controversial Features about the Film
Christopher Nolan
Production Companies:
- Syncopy Films
- Legendary Pictures
- Warner Bros. Pictures
What is Distribution
Distribution is about releasing and sustaining films in the market place. There are two types of integration, vertical integration and Horizontal integration. Vertical integration is when a company expands its business into areas that are at different points on the same production path, such as when a manufacturer owns its supplier and/or distributor.Horizontal however, is the use of additional business activities that are at the same level of value chain in similar or different industries. This can be achieved by internal or external growth. Because the different firms are involved in the same stage of production, horizontal integration allows them to share resources at the level.
Release Dates
Films in the UK are normally released on a Friday, as it is predicted that people will have more time and money as it the start of the weekend.

With ‘Orange Wednesdays’ it is more profitable for people to see movies during the week. The film industry has picked up on this and with certain films, moved the release date to during the week.

The marketing campaign can be a very expensive process as if they want their film to be noticed a lot by the general public, they will have to use billboards, adverts, and the internet to promote a movie.
Film Marketing Dates
Film marketing is a crucial part in the success of a movie. What this consists of is posters, billboards, trailers and adverts in many different mediums such TV, newspapers and the Internet.

Film marketing is a very expensive process which requires a lot of time and planning, to ensure the movie gets enough exposure before release date.
Trailers are really important as they give us a brief insight as to what the audience can expect from the film, as well as hyping them up about and creating anticipation. It is common for a trailer to show us the best bits of the film to get the viewers engaged and want to see the movie.

The trailers made to promote INCEPTION use most of the same principles mentioned, as it shows the audience the most technically impressive parts of the film, with snipets of the narrative without giving away too much of the plot.
Film Distribution in the UK
Most Hollywood films are distributed directly by the studio that financed the film. In the UK the cinema box office is dominated by a handful of major distributors, which are known as the ‘Big Six’, which include: Universal Pictures; 20th Century Fox; Walt Disney Pictures; Paramount Pictures and Columbia Pictures.
Focus Group Analysis
When I asked my group why they wanted to see Inception, I received several answers. One of them said that they went to see it because they had heard that it was good, but left out from whom he had heard it was good from; this suggests that the film was successful enough for it to be known about by a mainstream audience. The next person said that he was a fan of the main star of the film Leonardo DiCaprio; this tells me that the idea of featuring a certain star can help promote the film towards others who might not have seen the film is it displayed other less well-known actors/actresses. He also said that he was a fan of the film’s director Christopher Nolan, which tells me that he has seen previous films directed by Nolan and follows his career. He said that he was won over by the trailers that he saw and the brilliant visual effects in the film such as Paris bending over; as well as the film receiving critical acclaim at that point. The next person brought up similar points as the previous person, and also referred to another film that he watched that he saw because he watched this film, as it had the same actress in it (Ellen Page).The Next Question asked was whether they had seen the dark knight, and they all answered yes straight away and made comments such as “who hasn’t”. This tells me that they are fans of not just the film, but the Dark Knight trilogy also. This could relate to the groups love of the director, Christopher Nolan.I then went on to ask which film they thought was better, the Dark Knight Rises or Inception. They agreed as a group that they had preferred the Dark Knight Rises, but felt that Inception was the better film. This suggests to me that the focus group has a good knowledge over what makes a good film.I then asked what their thoughts were about the ending. The first person said that he had issues with the ending, as it is renown for being open ended; yet he felt that through logic it wasn’t really open ended at all, that it becomes a plot hole for the film. This tells me that this person was really into this film, which made him look into it after seeing it. The next person agreed with the other person but he wasn’t as annoyed by this, and he liked how it let the audience decide the ending.The next question that I asked was whether they thought the film was overly complicated. The first person to answer thought that it wasn’t that complicated, that it received praise for being complex but it wasn’t. The group agreed with this answer and were trying to come up with other films that they thought were more complex. This suggests to me that perhaps they really had fully comprehended the film where as others may not, suggesting that they really did like the film.
Audience Profile
The reason for this section is to identify what the ideal target audience would be for the film
The reason for this section is find out which people qualify as part of the target demographic and to see why they were interested in the film
The reason for this section is to further investigate the ideas discussed in questionnaire
The reason for this section is further investigate the points discussed in the focus group meeting
Focus Group
The reason for this section is to talk to fans about the reasons they like the film and their interests in it
The reason for this section is further investigate the points discussed in the audience effects questionnaire
The reason for this section is find out how people felt about the film after watching it and what they took away from the film
Billboards are used through out the world, they are a relatively cheap way of marketing products to a large group of people. Because large groups of people view these per day, it is a very good method of promotion.

This Method of Advertising was used for INCEPTION. In New York, the advertising team for Inception created a publicity stunt, where they painted around a billboard on the side of a building.
Posters are also used throughout the world, also being a relatively cheap method of advertising.
They are effective as when people are at the cinema, they will see cosmetically good posters and will want to watch the film (which means that it is more likely to reach its target market).

Inception like every other film used posters as a method of advertising, and the design of the poster is complex, which relates to the complexities of the plot
The cast and director of the film tour the capital cities of the world that the film is aimed towards. This then gathers the press and thus helps to promote the film.

Inception had it's premiere debut in London, England on July 8th 2010
Distribution | INCEPTION
Warner brothers distributed the film in cinemas throughout the world on, with it releasing first in the UK on July 8th 2010, and later in the US on July 16th 2010. It was later released onto Blu-ray and DVD on 6th December 2010 for the holiday season, so it would make as much profit as possible. Inception has only just become available on streaming service 'LOVEFILM' on the 2nd December 2012, as Warner Bros. does not strongly support internet streaming videos services like these.
Interpreting Mis-En-Scene in INCEPTION
Interpreting Mis-En-Scene in INCEPTION
Annotating Inceptions Ending
In this first part of the scene, Leonardo DiCaprio’s character is finally allowed back into the USA, showing us his triumphant walk down the baggage area to the exit. The dominant feature through out the entire final scene is Leonardo DiCaprio’s character; this is because he is the main character, and the film has to end with his character’s narrative at a conclusive point. This is created by how he is always the biggest object in the frame when the camera does not cut to a point of view shot. The focus of the shot is always focused dominantly on him as he exits the airport, with his workers later coming into focus as they tell him through their body language that he has done well. This part of the scene uses high key lighting, as this lighting sets a happier tone to the movie as the character experiences as win. There are very few cuts during this part of the scene as the majority of camera work done in this part of the scene pans the main character, following him through the airport to the exit. The majority of shots used in this scene are medium shots, which means the camera can focus on the faces of the actor/actresses while still fitting in as much of the location as possible.

In the final part of the scene, Leonardo DiCaprio’s character goes to his fathers home to see his children for the first time in years; with the camera later panning to his totem spinning continuously without stopping, leaving the ending up to the audiences own interpretation of whether he is still in the dream or not. His character starts of as the dominant feature, but in the final shot, the dominant feature becomes the totem. The cuts at this point are few, but normally have a soft transition, to suggest that the main character is happy with his life now.
Official Website
The point of the official website is to help promote the film, from before the point of its release at the cinema, to long after its DVD/Blu-Ray release. It helps to engage the audience by providing interesting activities for them to do such as games, interviews, charecter profiles, trailers etc.

INCEPTION has its own website, that it has been used primarily for the same purpose. It also displays all the awards it won at the academy awards such as best Cinematographer and best Visual Effects
Production Process
Principal photography began in Tokyo on June 19, 2009, with the scene where Saito first hires Cobb during a helicopter flight over the city.

The final phase of principal photography took place in Alberta in late November 2009. The location manager discovered a temporarily closed ski resort, Fortress Mountain. An elaborate set was assembled near the top station of the Canadian chairlift, taking three months to build. The production had to wait for a huge snowstorm, which eventually arrived. The ski-chase sequence was inspired by Nolan's favorite James Bond film, On Her Majesty's Secret Service.

The production moved to the United Kingdom and shot in a converted airship hangar in Cardington, Bedfordshire, north of London. There, the hotel bar set which tilted 30 degrees was built.A hotel corridor was also constructed by Guy Hendrix Dyas, the production designer, Chris Corbould, the special effects supervisor, and Wally Pfister, the director of photography, it rotated a full 360 degrees to create the effect of alternate directions of gravity for scenes set during the second level of dreaming; where dream-sector physics become chaotic. The corridor was suspended along eight large concentric rings that were spaced equidistantly outside its walls and powered by two massive electric motors.On July 15, 2009, filming took place at University College London library, for the sequences occurring inside a Paris college of architecture in the story.

Filming moved to France where they shot Cobb entering the college of architecture and the important scenes between Ariadne and Cobb, in a bistro and then on the Bir-Hakeim Bridge. For the explosion that takes place during the bistro scene, the local authorities would not allow the actual use of explosives, so high-pressure nitrogen was used to create the effect of a series of explosions.Pfister used six high-speed cameras to capture the sequence from different angles and make sure that they got the shot. The visual effects department then enhanced the sequence, adding more destruction and flying debris. For the "Paris folding" sequence and when Ariadne "creates" the bridges, green screen and CGI were used on location.

Tangiers, Morocco, doubled as Mombasa, where Cobb hires Eames and Yusuf. A foot chase was shot in the streets and alleyways of the historic medina quarter. To capture this sequence, Pfister employed a mix of hand-held camera and steadicam work. Tangiers was also used to film an important riot scene during the initial foray into Saito's mind.

Filming moved to the Los Angeles area, where some sets were built on a Warner Brothers sound stage, including the interior rooms of Saito's Japanese castle. The production also staged a multi-vehicle car chase on the streets of downtown Los Angeles, which involved a freight train crashing down the middle of a street. To do this, the filmmakers configured a train engine on the chassis of a tractor-trailer. The replica was made from fiberglass molds taken from authentic train parts and then matched in terms of color and design. Also, the car chase was supposed to be set in the midst of a downpour but the L.A. weather stayed typically sunny. The filmmakers were forced to set up elaborate effects (e.g., rooftop water cannons) to give the audience the impression that the weather was overcast and soggy. L.A. was also the site of the climactic scene where a van flies off the Schuyler Heim Bridge in slow motion. The hotel lobby was filmed at the CAA building in Century City. Limbo was made on location in Los Angeles and Morocco with the beach scene filmed at Palos Verdes beach with CGI buildings. N Hope St. in Los Angeles was the primary filming location for Limbo, with green screen and CGI being used to create the dream landscape.
For dream sequences in Inception, Nolan used little computer-generated imagery, preferring practical effects whenever possible. Nolan said, "It's always very important to me to do as much as possible in-camera, and then, if necessary, computer graphics are very useful to build on or enhance what you have achieved physically." To this end, visual effects supervisor Paul Franklin built a miniature of the mountain fortress set and then blew it up for the film. For the fight scene that takes place in zero gravity, he used CG-based effects to "subtly bend elements like physics, space and time."The most challenging effect was the "limbo" city level at the end of the film because it continually developed during production. Franklin had artists build concepts while Nolan gave his ideal vision: "Something glacial, with clear modernist architecture, but with chunks of it breaking off into the sea like icebergs". Franklin and his team ended up with "something that looked like an iceberg version of Gotham City with water running through it." They created a basic model of a glacier and then designers created a program that added elements like roads, intersections and ravines until they had a complex, yet organic-looking cityscape. For the Paris-folding sequence, Franklin had artists producing concept sketches and then they created rough computer animations to give them an idea of what the sequence looked like while in motion. Later during principal photography, Nolan was able to direct Leonardo DiCaprio and Ellen Page based on this rough computer animation Franklin had created. Inception had close to 500 visual effects shots (in comparison, Batman Begins had approximately 620), which is considered minor in comparison to contemporary visual effects epics that can have around 1,500 or 2,000 special effects images.The score for Inception was written by Hans Zimmer, who described his work as "a very electronic, dense score", filled with "nostalgia and sadness" to match Cobb's feelings throughout the film. The music was written simultaneously to filming, and features a guitar sound reminiscent of Ennio Morricone, played by Johnny Marr, former guitarist of The Smiths. Édith Piaf's "Non, je ne regrette rien" appears recurringly throughout the film, and Zimmer reworked pieces of the song into cues of the score. A soundtrack album was released on July 11, 2010 by Reprise Records.
Moblie Apps
A modern way of promoting a film is for the company to create an app based around the film that engages the users, influencing them to see the film. Most of which are free.

INCEPTION had its own free app, and the official website quotes "It uses augmented sound to induce dreams through the headset of your iPhone and iPod Touch. It will change your perception of reality"
Ofcom (Office of Communications) is the government-approved regulatory authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom. It has a statutory duty to represent the interests of citizens and consumers by protecting the public from what might be considered harmful or offensive material. According to Ofcom, the watershed on free-to-air television in the UK is between 21:00 and 05:30

The film Inception is rated a 12, which means that children under the age of 12 should not be allowed to view this film due to moderate violence and some controversial scenes. I believe that this film should be shown on TV during watershed in the interest of appealling to their target demographic, who would be able to view it at this time
Issues such as illegally downloading copies of the the film via torrent sites on the internet, effect how well the film does during its cinema release and it's release to DVD/Blu-ray. There are precautions that the company is able to make to prevent the film from ending up onto torrent sites, such as anti-piracy software on their DVDs and Blu-rays that prevent people from copying content onto their computer. However, there is little that film companies are able to do to once a copy has been leaked onto the internet. The only action that the company can take would be lawsuits, which is generally avoided because it takes alot of time and money for that to be done, and could be more so than what they would be losing through piracy.
Codes and Conventions
Inception is a hybrid genre as it uses the features of a thriller, such as an intense and supspensful narrative filled with twists and turns; while making use of feature from the sci-fi genre such as the concept of constructing dreams. At times, the different genres will tie into eachother, such as the constant use of CGI can be considered both sci-fi and action, as they construct unique and mystifying backgrounds, aswell as creating realistic explosions that conventionally action.. The camerawork used throughout the film is also very
sci-fi conventionally, as the camera often goes into slow motion where the audience is able to enjoy the spectacular particle effects. The camera will also spin around the charecters to create a supernatural effect.
At this stage, finalizing preparations for production go into effect. Financing will generally be confirmed and many of the key elements such as principal cast members, director and cinematographer are set. By the end of pre-production, the screenplay is hopefully finalized and satisfactory to all the financiers and other stakeholders. In 2002, Nolan wrote an 80-page treatment about "dream stealers" and presented the idea to Warner Brothers, envisioned as a horror film inspired by lucid dreaming. Nolan retired the project feeling he needed to have more experience with large-scale film production and instead worked on other projects. The screenplay for Inception took over 7 years to write before it was purchased by Warner Bros. in February 2009.

During pre-production, the script is broken down into individual scenes and all the locations, props, cast members, costumes, special effects and visual effects are identified. An extremely detailed schedule is produced and arrangements are made for the necessary elements to be available to the film-makers at the appropriate times. Sets are constructed, the crew is hired, financial arrangements are put in place and a start date for the beginning of principal photography is set. At some point in pre-production there will be a read-through of the script which is usually attended by all cast members with speaking parts, the director, all heads of departments, financiers, producers, and publicists. Storyboards are also made so that camera shots can be planned out ahead of time. They can also help give set designers suggestions for what the set should look like.
Narrative Structure: Theory 1
Todorov suggested that conventional narratives are structured in five stages. The first is a state of equilibrium at the outset. Inception does begin like this, as the main charecter Cobb appears to wash up onto a calm, sunny beach in the middle of the day. This part of the film supports this theory as all appears to be normal at the beginning of the film.

The second stage is a disruption of the equilibrium by some action. This occurs in Inception, as the main character sees an illusion of his children infront of him, despite knowing that they are not real. This part of the film supports this theory, as the main character is disrupted by acknowledging that he is unable to be with his children.

The third stage is a recognition that there has been a disruption. Inception support this as the main character Cobb is told by a business partner that he will allowed back into the united states again and will be able to see his children again if he performs the act of inception on another client. This part of the film supports the theory, as the main character acknowledges the distruption that he faces.

The forth stage is an attempt to repair the disruption. Inception supports this as Cobb and his team of dream extractors attempt to perform Inception on the client by descending through the different layers of the dream. This part of the film supports the theory as they are trying to perform Inception so that the main character is restored.

The fifth stage is a reinstatement of the equilibrium. Inception however does not follow this stage, as the ending of the film was left up to the audiences own interpretation, because Cobbs totem was left spinning which made the audience question whether he was in the dream or not.
Narrative Structure: Theory 2
Theory 2 suggests that there are eight character types in Propp:

- The villian of Inception would be Cobb's dead wife Mal, as she attempts to stop the hero from getting to the thing that he desires and motivates him.

- The hero of Inception is Cobb, as he seeks out his children, who motivate him because of his lack of interaction with him.

- The donor in Inception is Saito, who provides the hero with the ability to intercept people's dreams and extract knowledge from them.

- The helper in Inception is Adriane, who aids the hero by mapping out the dreams

- The princess in Inception is Cobb's children, as they are his reward at the end of the film

- The father in Inception is Cobb's father Miles, as He is taking care of the 'princess' throughout the film

- The dispatcher in Inception is Saito, who is also the donor of the film, as he is incharge of the operation and provides them with the equipment needed to perform Inception.

- The false hero in Inception is Cobb's dead wife Mal, who believes that her husband is in the dream and needs to wake up
Narrative Structure: Theory 3
For the ending of Inception, the main characters in Inception are seen as Rich as they are all sitting in the first class seats of an aeroplane, and they are dressed in business suits, which is associated with wealthy people and makes them stand out from a crowd of people that are dressed casually; this suggests that these people are considered the poor and weaker people. They are seen as weak in the this scene as they are forced to join a que, where as the main characters are able to go to the front of the line. The security at the airport are seen as the homesteaders as they are not flying in from another destination.
Piracy is a concern to the
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