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Transcript of David Ausubel
a broad sense because there is no existing
anchor which it can be attached over or under. Ausubel indicates that there are three essential conditions to meaningful learning
The use of a meaningful learning set to the learning task
no intention to memorize
existence of prior knowledge Advance Organizer (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr used to provide a structure at the beginning of a major unit of study.
act as subsuming bridgde bridge between new learning material and existing related ideas.
Presented before the actual topics to be learned. 2 different types of Advance Organizational II. EXPOSITORY I. COMPARATIVE. presents a study of the differences between items the student already knows and what they are about to learn. Presents a basic concept at a very high, abstract level. They can be used in combination also, but it is more likely to be used separately as each has its own separate strength. Criticism
“The most persuasively voiced criticism of advance organizers is that their definition and construction are vague and, therefore, that different researchers have varying concepts of what an organizer is and can only rely on intuition in constructing one-- since nowhere, claim the critics, is it specified what their criteria are and how they can be constructed” (Ausubel, 1978, p. 251).
In a response to critics, Ausubel defends advance organizers by stating that there is no one specific example in constructing advance organizers as they “always depends on the nature of the learning material, the age of the learner, and his degree of prior familiarity with the learning passage” (Ausubel, 1978, p. 251).
Another criticism of Ausubel’s advance organizers is that the critics often compare the idea of advance organizers with overviews. However, Ausubel has addressed that issue in saying that advance organizers differ from overviews “in being relatable to presumed ideational content in the learner’s current cognitive structure” (Ausubel, 1978, p. 252).
Thirdly, critics also address the notion of advance organizers on whether they are intended to favour high ability or low ability students. However, Ausubel notes that “advance organizers are designed to favour meaningful learning..” (Ausubel, 1978, p. 255).Therefore, to question whether advance organizers are better suited for high or low ability students is unrelated as Ausubel argues that advance organizers can be catered to any student to aid them in bridging a gap between what they already know and what they are about to learn.