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Skeletal System

By: Mandish and Jasman
by

Mandish Mann

on 26 May 2013

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Transcript of Skeletal System

Bibliography Bibliography Mandish and Jasman 809 Describe one disorder of the skeletal system. End of Presentation! Describe the chemical composition of bone. Describe the formation, growth and repair of bone. Explain the role of cartilage in the skeletal system from the point of view of stages in the life of an individual ie. embryos through to adults. Identify the number and the major bones in the human skeleton. Describe the different kinds of joints: ball and socket, hinge, pivot, gliding and suture. Use examples. Cartilage provides flexibility in the adult skeleton. In the embryonic stage, there is much more cartilage than bone, as an individual grows ossification takes place and the cartilage is slowly turned to bone by osteoblasts. Bones are made up of connective tissue, mostly composed of an organic protein - collagen. Collagen is the main fibrous protein in the body. A baby's bone is mostly made up of cartilage and as they grow up the cartilage bones fuse and harden through a process called ossification. The hinge joint allows movement
for the body to move in one direction, up and down but not sideways. Ball and Socket Joint: Pivot Joint: Ball and socket joints are capable of making an all-round movement up and down and sideways. The leg can be moved in any direction, sideways, up and down. Your shoulder is a also an example of ball and socket joints. Hinge Joint: Examples: Knee-joint, elbow -joint. and the movement of the lower jaw Elbow This kind of joint permits movement of the parts of body that are joined. Movement of the skull is an example. A person can turn his/her head from one side to the other by rotating the skull, which is joined to the backbone at its top in such a way that a movement is possible. At the wrist there are a number of small bones which glide one over the other. Also when we turn our palm upwards or downwards. Gliding Joint: This kind of joint is the movement of the wrist. Bursitis:
Bursitis is a disorder that causes pain in the body's joints. It most commonly affects the shoulder and hip joints. It is caused by an inflammation of the bursa, a small fluid-filled bags that act as surfaces for muscles to move over bones. This inflammation usually results from over activity of an arm or leg. Bursitis can occur from injury or infection. The amount of inflammation and spot where the bursitis occurred, changes the symptoms but the most usual symptom is pain. To treat uninfected bursitis; ice, rest, pain medications and in some cases aspiration of the bursa fluid or a injection. To treat infected bursitis, the fluid may be sent to a lab to determine the reason of infection, but normally infected bursitis requires; antibiotic therapy, repeated aspiration of the bursa fluid or perhaps surgery drainage or even removal of the infected bursa. Suture Joint: A type of fibrous joint which
only is in the skull or cranium.
They are bound
together
by Sharpey's
fibres. A tiny
amount of
movement is permitted. Mandish Question # 2: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/72869/bone/41882/Chemical-composition-and-physical-properties
Question # 4: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090202065738AAcHgMO
Question # 6: Smith, A. (n.d.). http://www.livestrong.com/article/190566-the-four-types-of-joints-their-functions/
Question # 7: Shock, C. (n.d.). http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/DISEASE.HTML By Mandish and Jasman Jasman Clavicle: A doubly curved short bone that connects the upper
arm (at the shoulder) to the body, right above the first rib.
Also known as the collar bone.
Cranium: The cranium is also referred to as the skull. The
cranium supports the structures of the face and protects the head from injury.
Femur: The thigh bone, extending from the hip to the knee. It is the largest, and strongest bone of the body.
Fibula: The fibula is located on the outer side of the lower leg. It is smaller than the tibia and attaches below the tibia and forms the outer part of the ankle joint.
Humerus: The upper arm bone. The longest and largest bone of the upper body.
Ilium: The Ilium is the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis. It is often
referred to as the hip bone.
Mandible: The mandible forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place.
Patella: A flat triangular bone located at the front of the knee joint. Also called kneecap. Protects and covers the knee joint. There are
206 bones
in the human skeleton!!! http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/
HumanBody/Skeletal/Skeletal_System.php * Question 1 * Question 5 http://lams.slcusd.org/pages/teachers/morrow/
Fitness%20and%20Health%20Handout
s/The%20Major%20Bones.pdf * Question 3 www,statisticsbrain.com/human-skeleton-statistics/ http://sciweb.hfcc.net/Biology/AP/23
3/233lecture/osteo.bone/oss.plus/os
sification/files/ossification2.html http://katie-humanbio.blogspot.ca
/2008/04/bone-growth-remodeling-and-repair.html
Tibia :The tibia is the second largest bone in the body. The tibia is located on the inside of the lower leg. It connects the knee with the ankle bones. It is also known as the shin bone.

Ulna: The ulna is located on the little finger side of the forearm. unla is the forearm bone of the elbow Radius: The radius is located on the thumb side of the forearm. The radius is the forearm bone of the hand.
Ribs: The ribs are long curved bones which, along with the sternum, form a rib cage. They enable the lungs to expand and they also protect the lungs, heart and other internal organs.
Sacrum: The sacrum is a large bone that is located at the base of the spine and at the upper back part of the pelvis where it is inserted between the two hip bones or two Iliums.
Scapula: The bone, located on the upper back that connects the humerus with the clavicle. Often referred to as the shoulder blade.
Sternum: A long flat bone in the middle of the chest. Supports the clavicle. There are 6 functions of the skeletal system. The fourth function is Storage
of Minerals. This function is
basically when bone tissues store
several minerals, which include
calcium and phosphorus and
when ever it is needed, bone
releases minerals in to blood.
The second last function is
productions of blood cells.
This function is a red bone
marrow inside some larger bones.
The last function in the skeletal system is storage of chemical energy. With people growing older the bone marrow changes from red bone marrow to yellow bone marrow. The yellow bone marrow contains mostly adipose cells and few blood cells. System Support is the first function in the skeletal system. The skeleton is the frame work of our body. It supports the softer tissues in us and it provides attachments for most skeletal muscles. The second function of the skeletal system is protection. This function basically provides mechanical protection for most of our body's internal organs.
Movement, the third function. The skeletal muscles are attached to bones, so when the other muscles contract, they cause the bones to move. Cartilage is a collagen based tissue containing very large protein molecules that form a gel in which the collagen fibers are entangled. Cartilage forms the bearing surfaces of the movable joints of the body. Growth Have you ever wondered how a baby's bones start so small and get huge over time? Growth in length To make bone grow in length, just add bone tissue to the side but that would result to a problem, because we can't exactly add directly to the end of bone because it has to move at the joints. Plus then the skeleton won't move properly. So the bone tissue is added along the length of the bone. This occurs at the epiphyseal plate, or growth plate. Here chondrocytes first produce hyaline cartilage. The cartilage then becomes calcified or ossified to form hard bone tissue.Once a person has reached adulthood and the bones have reached maximum length, the whole plate gets calcified. It forms a visible line called the epiphyseal line. Growth in Width To make a bone thicker, just add new bone tissue to the outside. The problem is the bone gets thicker and heavier as you go. In fact if you started with a bone the size of a baby's and make it as large as an adult's, you would have a bone that's totally solid. Baby bone have a very small marrow cavity. We add tissue to the periosteal side of bone and remove it from the endosteal side. In growing bone we find Osteoblasts on the periosteal side adding bone, and Osteoclasts on the endosteal side removing some bone tissue. Formation Repair Bone formation (osteogenesis) goes throughout adulthood. The bones of infants and children are softer than in adults because it has not yet been ossified. Generally bone fracture treatment consists of a doctor pushing dislocated bones back into place. Relocation with or without anesthetic, stabilizing their position, and then waiting for the bone's natural healing process to occur. There are two ways in which osteogenesis occurs: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. Both types form by replacing existing cartilage however in different ways. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are important in the process. Osteoblasts, used mainly in intramembranous ossification, are the cells in bone tissue that make calcium into the protein collagen. Osteoclasts, used in endochondral ossification, dissolve calcium stored away in bone and carry it to tissues whenever needed. One third of all of the bone is collagen. Bones formed during intramembranous formation are called membranous bones and bones formed during endochondral formation are called cartilage bone. Bone itself consists mainly of collagen fibers and an inorganic bone mineral in the
form of small
crystals. A living bone
contains between
10% and 20% water. Of its dry
mass, approximately 60-70% is
bone mineral. Most of the rest is collagen, but bone also contains a small amount of other substances such as proteins and inorganic salts. Bones grow
in length and
width but they
also get
thicker. The Major Bones of the Human Skeleton! Skeletal State the functions of the skeletal system.
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