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THE SECOND SINO-JAPANESE WAR

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Ar Jae

on 1 April 2015

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Transcript of THE SECOND SINO-JAPANESE WAR

Brief Summary
Historical Perspective
Political Perspective
Economic Perspective
Sanctions
Humanitarian Aid
Some humanitarian aid was from thousands of chinese ex-patriots living outside of China that gave millions of dollars worth of humanitarian aid in response.
Before the Second Sino-Japanese War, the first Sino-Japanese war occurred between 1894 and 1895. It was a conflict that was between Japan and China over the issue of Korea. For a long time, Korea had been China's client state. However, Korea's proximity to Japan and its natural resources caught Japan's interest. In 1894, war was declared. The conflict ended with the treaty of Shimonoseki. In this treaty, China recognized Korea's independence and gave up Taiwan.

Years later, the 918 Incident occurred where Japan invaded Mukden, Manchuria, China on September 18, 1931.

The beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War was marked by an incident on July 7, 1937 called the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. The Japanese army attacked the town of Wanping, and then Beijing. After this incident, major fighting between the two countries began and continued for 8 years.

Some contend that the war, also called the War of Resistence, actually started in 1931, with the the 918 incident.

In Japan, during the 1930's, the military exercised almost complete control over the nation. Many political enemies were assasinated and communists were persecuted. Censorship in the media and education increased. Residents were taught complete obedience to the emperor, whom they had been told to see as a god.
In China, the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek reigned. Japan occupied eastern China in 1937 to 1938 to try and unseat this government. Near the end of the battle in Nanking, the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army helped push out the Chinese nationalist government. Japan created many puppet governments while in China. The Second Sino-Japanese War caused a three-way split between Japan, China's communists and China's nationalists.
From 1931 to 1941, the Government of Canada sought to maintain a neutral position regarding Japanese encroachments in China. This was partly to honour a friendship established in the First World War but also to protect Canadian exporters‟ valuable sales of strategic minerals to Japan. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, pro-Japanese sympathy among Canadians eroded and trade with Japan became politically out of the question.
Canada had been a great source of foundation and money for Japan but once they decided to change sides the began to start funding China instead with military weapons, soldiers, etc.

After the war had ended, the seemingly generous hardware and financing offered to the Chinese Nationalists reflected a self-serving Canadian policy for East Asia which was not justified by Canadian officials on humanitarian or even political grounds.

By 1929, Japan was the fourth- highest importer of Canadian goods – purchasing metal, lumber, foodstuffs and other raw materials amounting to nearly $38 million that year alone. In fact, despite the Great Depression, Canada‟s trade with Japan consistently generated a healthy surplus throughout the interwar period.

In 1936, the year before the expansion of Sino-Japanese hostilities into full-scale war, Canada exported goods to Japan worth nearly $20 million and the ratio of trade surplus between the two countries had increased to 4.6 in Canada‟s favour.
The only sanctions were that of the western intervention in the form of economic sanctions (most importantly oil) against Japan that would transform the nature of the war. It was in response to these sanctions that Japan decided to attack America at Pearl Harbor, and so initiate WW II in the East.
Geographical Perspective
The second Sino-Japanese war was fought mainly in China. A major contested area was Manchuria, a region of northeastern China. Japan invaded Manchuria on September 19, 1931. On February 1933, 40 nations in the league voted for the withdrawl of Japan in Manchuria. Instead of leaving, Japan walked out of the league. Japan then invaded the Chinese province beside Manchuria, Jehol, in the same year. In 1937, following a Japanese victory in Shanghai, the Japanese army concentrated on Nanking, one of the richest Chinese cities. On December 13th, they entered the city and began murdering and pillaging the city. A big blow to Japan was when the atomic bomb was dropped in Hiroshima, on August 6th. Then, the SovietUnion attacked the Japanese in Manchuria. China, with the help of western allies, launched a successful offensive at Zhijiang, in August 14th, 1945. Japanese forces in China surrendered on September 9, 1945. This was the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, as well as the Second World War.
Interventions
In 1931, when Japan invaded Northern China, not only claiming it as not only Chinese but a multi-ethnic "Manchuria" region, China wrote a letter to the LON asking for help. In reply, they condemned Japan and told them to "settle matters peacefully". Japan stepped out of the LON and kept attacking. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States started to send supplies and men to China, including air attacks at Japan and finally they launched a nuke at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending the war. Before Pearl Harbor happened, Russia gave foreign aid to China, totaling some $250 million in credits for munitions and other supplies.
THE SECOND SINO-JAPANESE WAR
Who was involved: The Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Canadians

What happened:
The Japanese had decided to extinguish the dispute between them and China to expand their territory by taking over China

Where did it take place:
Japan but mostly China

When did it happen:
The events of the war took place between 1937-1944

Why:
The Japanese wished to expand their territory and over come China. They did this to expand their version of fascism.

How:
The Japanese were able to come so close to destroying the Chinese because of the funding the Canadian government gave to their military. But once they stopped funding the Japanese, they made it possible for the Chinese to win by funding them and their military.


Canada's Involvement
Due to the more wildly known parts of World War Two, not many people payed attention to the struggle China was undergoing. Therefore Canada's involvement has also been neglected. But thanks to "FUELING A WAR MACHINE" By DAVID KYLE FRANCOEUR , we know about the history of Canada's involvement.


In 1942, five years after the war between China and Japan, Canada had stepped in. To the Chinese at that time this was like a miracle because the were on the verge of being overthrown by Japan.

The Canadians had taken on a stand point at the beginning of the war to stay neutral because they didn't want to lose Japan as a result of their trade agreements. But after the attack on pearl harbour, Canada cut ties to Japan and began to help the Chinese out.
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