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Group 4 Anthropology

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Pram Prasai

on 9 March 2014

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Transcript of Group 4 Anthropology

Eventually divided into subfamilies
The Strepsirhines
The Lemurs (Lemuroidae)
The Lorises (Lorisoidae)
Madagascar: After continental drift, lemurs with no natural predators flourished on the large island (adaptive radiation)
Tropical Africa and Asia
Human colonies eradicated almost all but four families of lemurs, all with very distinct traits
Lemuridae
Cheirogalidae
Indriidae
Lorisidae
Galagonidae
Daubentoniidae
New World Monkeys
Platyrrhini
Tropical Rainforests / Western Hemisphere
Small body size
Prehensile tails
Old World Monkeys
Catarrhini
Africa, Asia, Middle East
Large body size
Chambered Stomach
Chapter 7
Primates
by Pram Prasai, Mark Aquino, Franco, Vanessa, Ankit, and Kamri, Dane, Victor, Samantha, Tyler, Robert, James, Aaron
Nocturnal
Solitary
Diurnal
Social
Nocturnal
Solitary
Largest
Monogamous
Typically, solitary and nocturnal
aka Bush Baby
Physical Anthropology - Professor Andrade
Primate Diet
The Haplorhines
Primates exploit a variety of food sources:
-Fruits (to easily obtain carbs and lipids)
-Leaves & insects (for amino acids vitamins, minerals)
*Non-human, higher primates
*"dry-nose" primates
*guided by vision
*diurnal (except for the owl monkey & tarsier)
*social (except for oranguatan)
*cognition is there suite of adaptation
Many primates have anatomical specializations enabling them to exploit particular foods (fruit, leaves, gum and insects)
Strepsirhini primates, like most mammals, can synthesize Vitamin C while Haplorhini primates have lost this ability and must seek it in their diet
Physically:
* furry noses
*lower jaw, fused at adulthood
*don't have a toothcomb
*ratio of brain to body size is higher than strepsirhines
Chimpanzees
"Chimps" are the closest living relative to humans and the most abundant of the three living African apes. The can live in various African habitats.
*includes:
Tarsier,New world monkeys, Old world monkeys ,Apes,Hominins
Platyrrhini
Fission-fusion mating: stable mother/offspring groups defended by ferocious males. Social males develop long lasting bonds while independent females settle into groups at their sexual maturity.
*Flat noses
*outwardly directed nasal openings
*3 premolars in each jaw
*anterior upper molars w/ 3 or 4 major cusps
*only the New world monkeys
Catarrhini
*downwardly directed nasal
openings close together
*2 premolars in each jaw
*anterior upper molars with 4
cusps
*only Old world monkeys
Chimps diet consists mainly of ripe fruits as well as leaves, plants and insects. They occasionally feed on smaller mammals (opportunistic carnivores).
The Tarsiers
*most highly nonhuman primate
*possess a mixture of traits from anthropoid & prosimian primates
* live in indonesia and nearby island groups
* monogamousforaging
* put there young in tree nests while out
* nocturnal predators
*eats small preys like insects, frogs & lizards
Bonobos
Often called "pygmy chimps" due to both their slender build as well as the similarities between the two species.
Inhabit areas around the Congo River. Political turmoil has notably slowed research of the species.
Difference from chimps:
Slender build
Modest sexual dimoprhism
More leafy diet
Strong sexual activity
Gibbons
Gibbon Facts:
-Genus: Hylobates
-Size: 10-25 lbs
-Diet: mainly fruits
-Social and highly territorial
Gibbons live in the forest canopies of areas extending from Asian tropical forests to India and Bangladesh all the way to Southeast Asia and the surrounding Indonesian islands.
Gibbons are highly vocal, often singing as a means of attracting potential mates as well as strengthening bonds between mates
An infant stump-tailed macaque
father carryin his new born marmoset monkey
Gorillas
At roughly 400 lbs, Gorillas are the largest of the primates and extremely genetically diverse
*There divided into 2 major groups: platyrrhini & Catarrhin
Sexual dimorphism:
Males outweigh females by fifty percent
Males reach sexual maturity in their mid teens and develop grey hair on their backs
Females give birth about every four years
Emigration for mating in males
Orangutans
Bornean Orangutan
Sumatran Orangutan
Found in Indonesia and Malaysia, grouping patterns appear to be based on local fruit abundance.
Sexual dimorphism:
Males tend to be twice the size and twice the weight of females
Females reach sexual maturity at age 11-15 years and males at 15
Why Study Primates?
The Diversity of Primates
There are 194 species of primates on record right now.
And they Range from small mouse lemurs to the much larger gorillas
What Is A Primate?
Primates are so diverse that they are then split into two suborders Strepsirhine and Haplorhine.
What makes a Primate a Primate?
Their are certain anatomical traits that make primates unique.
Like a Generalized body plan
Grasping Hands
Forward-Facing Eyes
Generalized Teeth
Petrosal Bulla
Enclosed Bony Eye Orbits
Life History Traits
Single Offspring
A primate is a mammal in the group Eutheria.
Large Brains
Nails
Social Learning
Chimpanzee Art
Behavioral Traits
Aging With Grace
Sunbathing Chimp
Primate Communities
More than a dozen different primates can be
seen in a single acre of forest.
You would find various nocturnal community of
primates if you walked through the forest at
night.
Old World Monkeys
Fought for the same needs as their
competition for food and
resources.
Niche Separation
Hominids
All Apes and humans are classified in the superfamily “Hominoidea”
The two ape families:
Hylobatidae - Gibbons/Lesser apes
Pongid - Four great apes: gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans
Human family is Hominid
Traits
Hominoids extend many haplorhine traits - Increased brain volume, intelligence, extended ontogeny, increased complexity of social interactions and large body size
The social complexity does not apply to all taxa
Hominoids share key traits in arms: suspensory rotating shoulder apparatus that allows for arm-hanging and arm-swinging
Also known as: Brachiation
This is what allows a quarterback in football to throw; or a gymnast to perform on the high bar
Pongidae move using modified quadrupedalism - called Kucklewalking
Diet Competition
Community
Ecological theory predicted when two or more organisms with similar needs share the same space they will occupy different sections of the forest.
Niche Separation is when the species divide the forest so everyone can get their share of food and resources.
Question #1
What is the only country where lemurs are found?
Answer #1
Lemurs are only found on the island Madagascar
Question #2
What are at least four common characteristics shared by primates?
Answer #2
Generalized body plan, opposable thumbs, flattened nails, complex visual system, generalized teeth, orbital plates, single offspring, larger brains, intense parental care
Question #3
What is the only completely carnivorous primate?
Answer #3
Tarsiers
Question #4
What species are humans known as?
Answer #4
Homosapiens
Question #5
What primates are our closest living relatives?
Answer #5
Chimpanzees (or bonobos)
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