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Sao Paulo, Brazil
Transcript of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Wenyi Zhong Brazil is likely to achieve the social indicators of developed countries by 2016, if the country continues to decrease poverty and income inequality through social spending, decentralization of social, and social participation in polices. Social Indicators of Sao Paulo's sustainability:
Brazil ranks 49.3 on the Gini coefficient index (Richest 10% receive 42.7% of the nation's income, poorest 10% receive less than 1.2%)
Life expectancy for men is 62 years old and for women it is closer to 70 years old
Infant mortality has dropped from 49 children per thousand births to 19
Free public education and 9/10ths of the population is literate
Brazil is part of the One Laptop Per Child project where each child receives a low cost laptop
Between 2003 and 2010, 4.4 million housing units were developed to decrease the housing deficit
The largest hospital complex of Latin America is the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo Social Indicators Climate Change in Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo gives a prime example of challenges megacities around the world face with climate change
Due to climate change, precipitation rates have been rising, leading to more flooding and landslides each year. Rising temperatures have increased risk of fires.
Approximately 48% of Sao Paulo has no plant cover, and development has made plant cover within the city unevenly distributed, varying from 0 to 26,000 m^2 per inhabitant. As a result, Sao Paulo’s heat island effect is intensified, with a 3 degree variance throughout the city. This increases the city’s vulnerability to rising temperatures.
As the low-income and poor populations increase, more deforestation and development of favelas occur, making Sao Paulo’s slums the most likely to be affected by climate change and extreme weather. Deforestation and land clearing increases the risks and occurrences of landslides, erosion, flooding, and fire in affected areas. Also, most slums are developed in areas vulnerable to landslides or flooding, such as sloping land or wetlands
Sao Paulo’s Climate Change Policy and Actions
In 2009, a National Plan on Climate Change was approved, but Brazil still has not developed a comprehensive climate change plan of action. Yet, more action is taken at the municipal levels.
Sao Paulo joined Cities of Climate Protection in 2003, pledging to lower greenhouse gas emissions by “elaborating a baseline emissions ¬ inventory, adopting emission targets, developing a local action plan, and implementing specific policies and measures.”
The Energy Efficiency Program of the State of Sao Paulo helps create environmental and climate change policies.
In creating climate change policy, Sao Paulo partnered with environmental programs, the World Bank, and research companies like FAPESP while integrating climate change policies with other policies such as waste management, pollution control, and transportation. Environmental Indicators The government of São Paulo has been committed since 1995 to the improvement of governmental efficiency and transparency
Effective government is a key factor for effective, sustainable urban development
São Paulo Sustainable Public Procurement program (SPP) focuses on the following: reporting and accountability; specification of goods, services and construction works; socio-environmental responsibility of suppliers; contract monitoring and management; and information exchange and dissemination
“…powerful driver of sustainability, by providing incentives for investment, innovation, and scaling of sustainable enterprises, goods, services, and infrastructure across the public and private sectors…” (Brauch, 2012)
Transportation infrastructure improvements governmental encouragement of public transportation promotes sustainability by reducing the carbon footprint from personal vehicles
The city of São Paulo has made progress in the realm of sustainability by converting some buses to ethanol operation and also adopting hybrid buses
Investment in innovations for the subway system including new lines to further spur the accessibility and usage of public transportation
Both the Brazilian federal government and state-level governments are launching social housing programs to respond to housing shortages which result in lack of sustainability
Durability is a major factor being taken into account to ensure that dwellings will be well-maintained and serve long-term purposes
Political corruption: while Brazil still scored below 50 (where 0 is highly corrupt and 100 is not corrupt at all) in Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2012, it is still considered the 4th least corrupt country in South America
Implications at the city level: presumably, the less corrupt a country is perceived to be, the more governments will institute smart, sustainable decisions Political Indicators Sao Paolo, as one of the largest and most important cities in the Americas, has the opportunity to lead the way in sustainable development for the region. Since the early 1900’s, the area has become highly urbanized leading to various challenges. The population growth has led to Urban Sprawl, and informal settlements on vulnerable areas. The downtown area has dense amount of Urban construction, yet most is not residential, leading in large travel times for most residents and an overloading of the transit system. Although this is true, many breakthroughs for Sao Paulo in Sustainable Urban development are underway:
New mass transit lines under programs such as Urban Operation Água Espraiada
Better housing (interventions from 2005-2012 to improve)
Improving old industrial areas (also due to Urban Operation Água Espraida)
More green areas (Project in progress to increase parks by 195 percent)
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (twenty percent from transforming power plants)
New climate change laws (Municipal Committee for Climate Change)
Has resulted in opportunities such as World Expo 2020.
Lofty goals via SP2040 to create the city that residents want:
Every river in city restored, 15 minute walk to reach park, change informal housing to communities integrated within city, commutes of average of 30 minutes, making Sao Paulo an open city with easy connections to the rest of the world.
Comparing New York City and Sao Paulo by measures of sustainable development
Sao Paulo New York
1. GDP Per Capita (Economics) $23,704 $57,329
2. Economic performance out 217th 2nd
of 300 world metros
3. Life Expectancy (Health) 75 81
4. Population 20,000,000 18,000 Sao Paulo has one of the biggest economies in Brazil. With an economy that is larger than more than 20 of the states in the United States, Sao Paulo churns out some impressive numbers. Economic factors help to drive the country forward and help keep it strong by bringing money in and providing for the people that populate the area.
GDP: $473 billion (11th in the world)
GDP per capita: $23, 704
Exports in billions (2007-2012): $99.9
The biggest change in Sao Paulo’s economy is coming from the type of jobs being held. However, the largest portion of jobs held (public service positions) only makes up 20% of the economy. This exemplifies the diversity in the job market. Over the past few years, the information sector has seen more growth than in total growth.
Though the economy in Sao Paulo is very large, the growth inside is relatively small. Of 13 Brazilian metros, the GDP growth ranks 10th, long term employment growth ranks 11th, and short term employment growth ranks 12th. These numbers prove that Sao Paulo is a strong economy but doesn’t see the growth that the more developing areas in Brazil are seeing. Economic Indicators An Introduction To Sao Paulo's Success As A Megacity In the 19th century, Sao Paulo prospered as a coffee-growing region and transportation networks were built, which resulted in commercial growth for the city.
By the end of the 19th century, slavery was abolished, resulting in a shortage of labor for coffee fields. Italian and Japanese immigrant laborers came in, as well as others from Portugal and Spain, to help “bleach the race.” This was to counterbalance the amount of African descent present in area.
Sao Paulo became Brazil’s leading industry manufacturer in the 1930s and in the 1950s Brazil saw growth in the industries (became Brazil’s site for foreign-led automobile industry).
In the 1960s, Sao Paulo led in economic and demographic services, which resulted from industrial, commercial, and financial dynamics. This made Sao Paulo the preferred location for multinational corporate headquarters in South America and is considered the business capital of Mercosur.
Today, Sao Paulo is one of the leading cities in Brazil as both an economic and financial center with a population over 15 million. Sao Paulo's Sustainable Growth Indicators Bibliography http://www.helium.com/items/2287384-sao-paulo-brazil-the-history-of-south-americas-megacity