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Transcript of Learning
He also identified a hierarchy of eight conditions to learning.
He did not believe reinforcement was necessary for learning to occur. Robert Gagne Benjamin Bloom The term Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) covers a range of computer-based packages, which aim to provide interactive instruction usually in a specific subject area, and many predate the Internet. Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner Box.
He innovated his own philosophy of science called radical behaviorism.
He invented the Skinner Box to measure responses of organisms and their orderly interactions with the environment.
He discovered that consequences for the organism played a large role in how the organisms responded in certain situations. Not all change is accomplished through learning. Any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning. Changes like an increase in height or the size of the brain are another kind of change controlled by a genetic blue print. This kind of change is called maturation (March 20, 1904-August 18,1990 January 9, 1878-September 25, 1958 John Watson American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
The "Little Albert" experiment of Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner carried out to be most controversial in psychology in 1920.
The goal of the experiment was to show how principles of , at the time recently disovered, classical conditioning could be applied to condition fear of a white rat into "Little Albert", an 11-month-old-boy.
An ethical problem of this study is that Watson and Rayner did not uncondition "Little Albert". Behaviorism A major theory within psychology which holds that behaviors are learned through positive and negative reinforcements.
The theory recommends that psychological concepts (such as personality, learning and emotion) are to be explained in terms of observable behaviors that respond to stimulus.
Behaviorism was first developed by John B. Watson (1912), who coined the term "behaviorism," and then B.F. Skinner who developed what is known as "radical behaviorism."
Watson and Skinner rejected the idea that psychological data could be obtained through introspection or by an attempt to describe consciousness; all psychological data, in their view, was to be derived from the observation of outward behavior Ivan Pavlov Pavlov completed his study with an exceptional performance and receive the degree of Candidate of Natural Sciences.
He become interested in studying reflexes when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled.
In a series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked . (1849-1936) Edward Thorndike "Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals", his doctoral thesis in which he concluded that an experimental approach is the only way to understand learning and established his famous "Law of Effect".
He introduced the concept of reinforcement, which Watson and Guthrie ignored.
His work is frequently entitled connectionism because of the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections.
He point out the part of experience in the strengthening and weakening of stimulus response connections.
Thorndike named this perspective connectionism.
He conducted a classic experiment, on which his dissertation is based, involved cats placed in a puzzle box with a door that unlocked when a certain device (wire loop) was properly manipulated. (1874-August 9,1949) Through his experiment, Thorndike concluded that certain stimuli and responses become connected or dissociated from each other according to his law of effect.
The final analysis of the Law of Effect was the immediate consequences of a mental connection can work back upon it to strengthen it.
Thorndike concluded from his observations that the learning of a response to a stimulus is affected by the consequence of that behavior. Classical Conditioning Involves the formation of an association between a conditioned stimulus and a response through repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus together with an unconditioned stimulus. Four Variables Unconditioned Stimulus
Conditioned Response Conditioning - the process whereby dogs or humans learn to connect stimulus to a reflex. Edward Tolman Tolman is best known for his studies of learning in rats using mazes, and he published many experimental articles, of which his paper with Ritchie and Kalish in 1946 was probably the most influential.
He wanted to use behavioral methods to gain an understanding of the mental processes of humans and other animals.
Tolman sought to demonstrate that animals could learn facts about the world that they could subsequently use in a flexible manner, rather than simply learning automatic responses that were triggered off by environmental stimuli.
Tolman coined "cognitive map", which was an internal perceptual representation of external environment features and landmarks. (April 14, 1886 – November 19, 1959) Latent Learning - a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned. (1916-2002) Five types of learning - learning is similar to processing it is sequential and builds on prior knowledge. 1. Verbal Information
2. Intellectual Skills 3. Cognitive Strategies
4. Motor Skills 5. Attitude Nine Events of Instruction 1. Gain attention: Present stimulus to ensure reception of instruction.
2. Tell the learners the learning objective: What will the pupil gain from the instruction?
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning: Ask for recall of existing relevant knowledge.
4. Present the stimulus: Display the content.
5. Provide learning guidance
6. Elicit performance: Learners respond to demonstrate knowledge.
7. Provide feedback: Give informative feedback on the learner's performance.
8. Assess performance: More performance and more feedback, to reinforce information.
9. Enhance retention and transfer to other contexts Eight Ways to Learn # Signal Learning: A general response to a signal. Like a dog responding to a command.
# Stimulus-Response Learning: A precise response to a distinct stimulus.
# Chaining: A chain of two or more stimulus-response connections is acquired.
# Verbal Association: The learning of chains that are verbal. # Discrimination Learning: The ability to make different responses to similar-appearing stimuli.
# Concept Learning: A common response to a class of stimuli.
# Rule Learning. Learning a chain of two or more concepts.
# Problem Solving. A kind of learning that requires "thinking." Hermann Ebbinghaus He developed the scientific approach to the study of a higher psychological process (memory).
He was the first to describe the "learning curve".
First person to use nonsense syllables in learning and memory research.
Ebbinghaus systematic and careful approach to the study of memory change this paradigm by demonstrating the higher cognitive processes could also be studied scientifically.
His experiments demonstrated empirically that meaningless stimuli are more difficult to memorize than meaningful stimuli, that is, it is harder to memorize material that does not have significance or relevance to the learner. (1890-1909) Wolfgang Koehler As a Gestalt psychologist, he studies how people use the five senses to extract information from the environment.
Koehler used the term insight to refer to the very rapid "perception of relationships" that sometimes occur in human and animals.
His most famous subject was a particularly smart chimpanzee called Sultan. January 21,1887-June 11,1967 Albert Bandura He believes that we are capable to learn and develop behavior through observation .
"Aggressive behavior is learned through essentially the same process as those regulating the acquisition of any other form of behavior"
He conducted the "bobo doll experiment", studying children´s behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll.
Bandura stressed the importance of observational learning because it allowed children especially, to acquire new responses through observing others' behavior. Insight Learning a type of learning or problem solving that happens all-of-a-sudden through understanding the relationships various parts of a problem rather than through trial and error. Observational Learning is the learning that occurs through observing the behavior of other people. Albert Bandura, who is best known for the classic Bobo doll experiment, discovered this basic form of learning in 1986. Four Elements of Observational Learning Attention
Motivation Edwin Ray Guthrie Guthrie is best known for his one trial theory, nonreinforcement, and contiguity learning.
His approach to learning and theories was simple.
Guthrie’s main principle for his theory of learning was contiguity .
He defined contiguity as, “A combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement on its reoccurrence tend to be followed by that movement” (Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2001).
Guthrie’s one trial learning theory states that in the first instance of a stimulus situation a person makes a complete association. The theory predicts you will respond to the stimulus the same way that worked previously. (1886–1959) Contiguity Theory A stimulus or combination of stimuli that is followed by a particular response will, upon its reoccurrence tend to be followed by the same response again.
According to Guthrie repetitions neither strengthen nor weaken the connection already made. Neal Miller Miller's work in the area of learning and motivation was both extensive and groundbreaking.
Neal Miller and John Dollard in their book Social Learning and Imitation listed the following four fundamentals necessary for instrumental learning:
- DRIVE (Motivation) ; a person must want something.
- CUE (Stimulus) ; a person notice something.
-RESPONSE ; a person must do something.
- REWARD (Reinforcement) ; a person must get something that is wanted. (February 21, 1913 – September 13, 1999) American educational psychologist who made contributions to the classification of educational objectives and to the theory of mastery-learning.
His classification of educational objectives, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain, published in 1956, addresses cognitive domain versus the psychomotor and affective domains of knowledge.
Bloom's taxonomy provides structure in which to categorize instructional objectives and instructional assessment.
He focused much of his research on the study of educational objective and, ultimately, proposed that any given task favors one of three psychological domain: cognitive, affective, or psychomotor. Cognitive domain -deals with a person ability to process and utilize information in a meaningful way. Affective domain -relates to the attitudes and feelings that result from the learning process. Psychomotor domain -involves manipulative or physical skill. Clark Hull Hull's Theory (August 3, 1909 – March 23, 2002) Miller made the following main contributions in learning: 1. Fear as a learned drive
2. Approach-Avoidance Conflict
4. Premonitory of the Rescorla-Wagner model
5. Discoveries emerging from his tests of Clark Hull's Strong Form of the Drive-Reduction Hypothesis of Reward (May 24, 1884 – May 10, 1952) Basic Concepts in Hull's Theory Need- Psychological imbalances
Drive- State of tension
Goal- commodity with reduce drive Need Drive Activity Goal Reduce Drive Drive Reduction Psychological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis-maintenance of steady internal state. Drive Reduction Theory Lack of Homeostasis Need Drive Motivation to Act Homeostasis