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THE HISTORY AND PROSPECT OF ANTHROPOLOGY

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joviland rita

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of THE HISTORY AND PROSPECT OF ANTHROPOLOGY

THE HISTORY AND PROSPECT
OF ANTHROPOLOGY
Anthropology
is the science of people and culture. The word is a combination of two Greek roots,
anthropos = man
logos = calculations
BRANCHES OF ANTHROPOLOGY
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
*studies people as biological organisms
*concentrate upon human genetics
*study of inherited characteristics
*measurements of human body
*analysis of body's physical characteristics
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
devoted to the behavior of people and the products of that behavior.
HISTORY AND PROSPECTS
OF ANTHROPOLOGY

Spencer- frequently mention on how environment produced variety in culture, and he discussed vatious routes by which cultural levels could be ascended.
Morgan and Taylor discussed the diffusion of traits from one culture to another, Morgan in particular pointed out that the American Indian cultures he was studying were in process of leaping cultural stage under the impact of European civilization.
FUNCTIONALISM
this theoretical orientation toward the analysis of culture grew up simultaneously in both anthropology and sociology, associated with the names of Emil Durkheim and A.R: Radcliffe-Brown.
STRUCTURALISM
a technique for studying tribal social organization, has had considerable influence among students of cultural anthropology.
EVOLUTION OF MAN
Long before Charles Darwin published "The Descent Man", it was thought in certain scholarly circles that man was an animal
As ANIMALS, men are complex aggregates of cells, differentiated from plants and from single-celled creatures.
As CHORDATES, men have dorsal nerve chord.
As VERTEBRATES, men are warm-blooded, with hair, and females nourish their young with milk.
As EUTHERIANS, or fully placental mammals, men bring forth young alive and fully formed, but in totally defenseless condition.
As PRIMATES, men enjoy prehensile hand with opposable thumbs have keen streoscopic upon which they rely more in hearing and smelling.
As ANTHROPODS, men are erect,normally move bipedally. Legs are longer than arms, feet, adapted walking, are not prehensible, faces almost vertical, little projection of jaws.
As ANIMALS, men are complex aggregates of cells, differentiated from plants and from singled-cell creature.
As CHORDATES, men have dorsal nerve cord.
As VERTEBRATES, this cord is encased in a hard, body spine.

AUSTRALOPITHECUS
HOMO ERECTUS
NEANDERTHAL
CRO-MAGNON
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