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Copy of GCSE Theory Revision Seminar 1

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aaron davies

on 10 March 2015

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Transcript of Copy of GCSE Theory Revision Seminar 1

GCSE Theory
Revision session

Year 10 TOpics
Develops team work skills
Healthy, Active
Lifestyles
There are many benefits of physical activity. These can be put in to three categories- Physical, Mental and Social
Feel good factor
Stress Relief
Look good
We will be looking at the topics you covered in Year 10 from healthy active lifestyles to performance enhancing drugs!
Improves body shape
Cardiovascular Improvements
Develops friendships
Increase self confidence
Communication skills
Physical Challenge
Competition
Aesthetic Appreciation
Lose weight
Increase life expectancy
Physical
Mental
Social
Stress Relief
Physical Challenge
Aesthetic Appreciation
Competition
Competition
Communication skills
Increase life expectancy
Look good
Improves body shape
Feel good factor
Develops team work skills
Lose weight
Develops friendships
Cardiovascular Improvements
Increase self confidence
Exam Question
Answer
Influences
People are influenced to take part in physical activity in many ways. You need to know the 6 key influences:
Culture
Health and Well Being
Image
People
Socio-economic
Resources

Remember- CHIPS-R
Culture
Age
Gender
Race
Disability
Health and Well Being
Short term and long term illness
Image
Fashion
Media
Family
Peers
Role Models

Socio-economic
Cost
Status
Resources
Access
Location
Time
Availability
Exam Question
Answer
People
Roles within Sport
Performer
Coach
Official
Volunteer
What qualities do these different roles need?
Sports Participation pyramid
Exam Question
Answer
So, what are the
stages called?
Exam Question
Answer
Health, Exercise, Fitness, Performance
You MUST learn the definitions of each of these key terms.
You should also know the link between them in maintaining a healthy active lifestyle.
Do you know the definitions?
HEALTH
A state of complete mental, physical and social well being and not merely in the absence of disease and infirmity.
FITNESS
The ability to meet the demands of the environment
PERFORMANCE
How well a task is completed
EXERCISE
A form of physical activity which maintains or improves health and/or physical fitness
Exam Question
Answer
Match the definitions to the key words
Remember- putting that he is close or that it is his family is not enough, you must put the key words 'people' and 'resources'
Remember to highlight or underline key words in the question. It is asking you for the MENTAL benefits so you don't need to worry about physical or social benefits
Although there are lots of jobs in sport, it is only the 4 roles they are after. You cannot put an umpire as one answer and a referee as another as they are both an official role.
Don't get put off by the amount of lines there are. It is asking you to identify the roles so you just need to name them. Look at how many marks are available rather than the space provided.
Initiatives
Components of Fitness
There are 11 components of fitness. They are broken down into 5 health related components and 6 skill related components of fitness
Health Related
Muscular Strength
Muscular Endurance
Cardiovascular Endurance
Flexibility
Body Composition
Skill Related
A
gility
B
alance
C
oordination
P
ower
R
eaction Time
S
peed
TASK
Match the component of fitness with the picture and the definition
Fitness Tests
Sit and Reach
Standing
broad jump
Hand grip dynamometer
3 ball juggle
Sergeant Jump Test
Ruler Drop Test
Illinois Agility
Run
Harvard Step Test
Exam Question
Answer
This is worth 3 marks.
You must say why you wouldn't use this test for table tennis and why. You must say what sport would benefit from the 30 metre sprint test.
Then conclude by saying what tests would be relevant to table tennis and why.
Principles of Training
Specificity
Progressive Overload
Rest and Recovery
Reversibility
F.I.T.T- Frequency
Inensity
Time
Type

These are principles you would apply to a training programme to ensure you would improve and not get injured.
Goal Setting-
SMART targets

Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time-bound

Why is goal setting important?

What is an example for each one?

Methods of Training
There are 6 methods of Training.
What are they?

Continuous
Circuit
Cross
Interval
Fartlek
Weight

Continuous
Training without a rest period, where the work rate is between 60-80% of the maximum heart rate.
Long distance events would benefit from this- marathon runners, long distance cyclists.
:) No equipment needed
:( Can become boring
Circuits
The Exercise Session
Heart Rate and Training zones
Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise
Diet
Somatotypes
Optimum Weight
Weight related conditions
Risk in sport
Drugs
Involves periods of work at a variety of stations
:) Can work both skill or health related components of fitness
:) Can apply principles of training easily
:( Lots of equipment and space needed
:( Time consuming to set up
Cross
Training in a variety of ways to improve overall performance in one sport.
e.g a diver doing gymnastics
:) Makes training interesting
:( Activity must be specific to sport you want to improve

Interval
Training where there is a burst of high intensity work followed by a rest or low intensity work.
Football, netball, basketball players would benefit from this training.
:) Includes rest which allows for recovery
:( Can become repetitive
Fartlek
Training where the intensity changes as well as the terrain
Marathon Runners, cross country runners
:) Can be done almost anywhere
:(Can become repetitive
Weight
training that increases the muscle size and strength and is when weights are lifted in repetitions and sets.
Weight lifters, rugby players
:) Can focus on specific muscles
:( Requires equipment
3 phases of an exercise session:
WARM UP
MAIN ACTIVITY
COOL DOWN

The Warm Up
What it should include:
Pulse Raiser e.g jogging
Stretches- dynamic (moving) and static stretches
Skill-related activity
The importance of a warm up:
-Physically and mentally prepares you to exercise
-Increases oxygen delivery to working muscles
-Increases temperature of muscles, reducing chance of injury
-Increases flexibilty
Main Activity
Cool Down
Resting Heart Rate-
heart rate when at rest. Average 72bpm
Recovery Rate-
the time it takes for your heart rate to return to resting after exercise. The fitter you are, the quicker this happens.
Working Heart Rate-
your heart rate during exercise
Target zone
Which is which?
Aerobic
Anaerobic
Aerobic=
'With oxygen'; if exercise is not too fast and is steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen the muscles need.


Anerobic=
'Without oxygen'; if exercise is done in short, fast bursts, the heart cannot supply blood and oxygen to muscles as fast as the cells use them.
Oxygen debt
The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest.
F
at
M
en
C
an't
P
lay
F
ootball
V
ery
W
ell!

7 components of a balanced diet
F
ibre,
M
inerals,
C
arbohydrates,
P
rotein,
F
ats,
V
itamins

You need all of these things in your diet but for it to be a balanced diet you need different proportions of each....
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
What are the three types of somatotypes?
Height
Gender
Age
Bone Structure
Muscle Girth
Anorexia
Overweight
Overfat
Obese
Underweight
Performance
Enhancing

Recreational
What somatotype would these athletes be?
Answer
There are two recreational drugs that you need to know.
These are SMOKING and ALCOHOL.
Negative Effects on Health
Alcohol
Heart Failure
Increased blood pressure
Increased weigt
Liver disease/cancer
Smoking
Strokes
Bronchitis
Heart Disease
Blood clots
Emphysema
Lung Cancer
Negative effects on performance
Alcohol
Leads to slower reaction times
Causes weight gain
Causes loss of coordination
Causes loss of concentration
Smoking
Causes breathlessness
Reduces oxygen-carrying capacity
General Risks
Pulled muscles
Sprained ankles
Activity specific risks
e.g the risk of being hit with a hockey stick is specific to hockey.
Reducing Risk through personal readiness
Reducing risk through personal readiness:
1. Complete a PAR-Q
2. Allow recovery time
3. Warm Up
4. Use the correct clothing
5. Apply the rules of the game correctly.
Reducing risk through other measures
1. Make sure the competition is balanced
2. Check the equipment
3. Check the facilities
Here is how you would reduce risk..
Performance Enhancing Drugs
Why do people take them?
Fame
Money
Be the best
Winning
Prizes
Sponsorship
Anabolic Steroids
Effect on performance:
Increase in muscle mass

Side effects:
Increase blood pressure

Who would take it?
Weight lifters/body builders/sprinters


Beta Blockers
Effect on performance:
Calming effect, lowers heart rate

Side effects:
lowers heart rate to dangerous level

Who would take it?
Archers, snooker players


Stimulants
Effect on performance:
Increase alertness/agression

Side effects:
Insomnia, high blood pressure

Who would take it?
Rugby Players,boxing, ice hockey (aggression
Long distance cycling, baseball (alert)


Peptide Hormones


Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
Effect on performance:
Increase muscle mass and therefore strength

Side effects
Arthritis, heart failure, diabetes

Who would take it?
Sprinting
Weight lifting
Erythropoietin (EPO)

Effects on performance:
Help increase red blood cell production and therefore increase oxygen delivery to working muscles
Side effects:
Blood clots, strokes, deep vein thrombosis, heart attack
Who would take it?
Distance cycling/running
Diuretics
Effect on performance:
Increase rate of urination-lose weight quickly. Masking agent

Side effects:
Dehydration

Who would take it?
Jockeys, boxers


Narcotic Analgesics

Effect on performance:
Reduce the feeling of pain

Side effects:
Can make injuries worse

Who would take it?
Any performer with an injury who wishes to carry on training.
There are 6 performance enhancing drugs that you need to know.
For each one you need to learn the effect on performance, the side effects and what type of athlete would benefit from taking them.
Peptide Hormones
Narcotic Analgesics
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Stimulants
Anabolic Steroids
PAR-Q Form
PAR-Q= PHYSICAL ACTIVITY READINESS QUESTIONNAIRE
Designed to identify any potential health problems that mean exercise would not be recommended.
Would include questions such as:
-personal physical details (age, weight)
-family health history
-lifestyle (smoking)
So what is a balanced diet?

- Eating the right foods in the right amounts
-A balance of food from the different food groups
-A variety of foods within each food group


Input v Output
Although we need a balanced diet the QUANTITY we need (the input) relates to how much exercise we do.
Health problems can occur if we eat to much in relation to the amount of activity we do (become overweight) OR
If we eat too little in relation to the amount of activity we do (become underweight

Components of diet and their function
Fats: Contained in butter, oil, fatty meats. Provide us with energy but should be eaten in moderation.
Carbohydrates: Bread, pasta, potatoes, rice. Provide us with energy for use in aerobic and anaerobic activity.
Proteins: Cheese, milk, eggs, fish. Can be used as energy. Main function is growth and repair of muscles.
Minerals and Vitamins: Fruit and vegetables. Help immune system and general health and growth. Calcium-keeps bones strong. Vitamin D-helps body absorb calcium
Fibre: Cereals and nuts. Aids the digestive system- keeps you regular.
Water: Prevents dehydration
'Macro' means things on a large scale.
Macronutrients are the nurients that we need to have in our diet in large quantities. We need them for ENERGY, GROWTH and REPAIR. Everyone needs them but if you are exercising regularly it is particularly important
Macronutrients are...
FATS
CARBOHYDRATES
PROTEINS
micronutrients are the nutrients that we need to have in our diet in small quantities. We need them to maintain good health.
VITAMINS
MINERALS
WATER
FIBRE
Timing of Dietary intake
You should leave at least 2 hours after eating a meal before you exercise.
When you eat you need an increased blood flow to the digestive system. When you exercuse you need an increased blood flow to your working muscles.
A conflict occurs if you eat just before exercising because both areas cannot have an increased blood flow at the same time.
Blood shunting
This is when blood is diverted away from inactive areas to the working muscles.
Vasoconstriction: the blood vessels are constricted (squeezed) to make them smaller.
Vasodilation: Blood vessels are dilated to make them bigger
If the main session is a match or an event then the purpose will be to put your trianing and targets into practice.
If the main session is part of your training programme then the purpose will be to work on the areas of skill or fitness you have planned.
You should include:
1. Light exercise e.g slow jogging
2. Stretching the muscles you have used in the activity.
Importance of a cool down:
-Aids the removal of lactic acid and carbon dioxide
-helps bring heart rate and breathing rate slowly back to their resting rates.
-helps avoid dizziness
-improves flexibility.
To maximise the chance of fitness adaptations taking place you should train within your target zone.
How to work it out....
Find mour Maximum heart rate (MHR)
220- age (220-16 =204)
Calculate 60% and 80% of your MHR
122-163bpm
60% is your lower threshold. 80% is your upper threshold.

Exam Question
Exam Questions
Exam Questions
A number of initiatives are set up to encourage people to take part in physical activity and so have a healthier lifestyle. Different agencies exist to put these initiatives into practice.
They have similar aims:
-increased participation in sport
-retaining people in sport
-creating opportunities for talented performers
Here are some agencies you need to know:
Sport England
Working to: create a community sport system
By:
-investing in national lottery funding.
-Working with UK sport
-Delivering a mass participation sporting legacy from the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games
Youth Sport Trust (YST)

Working to: create a PE and sport system that engages all young people
By:
-working with schools and NGBs to establish new clubs.
-creating the next generation of volunteers and coaches, officials and volunteers
National Governing Bodies (NGBs)
Working to: cincrease the numbers and skill level of those participating in sport.
By:
-increasing the quality of coaches, volunteers and officials.
-organising more competitions
-assisting with facility development
The revision seminar
-Make notes as you go along
-When you see this you will do an activity on that topic
-There will be lots of exam questions for you to have a go at.
Happy Revising and Good Luck!!!
Quiz
1. What does the A stand for in SMART targets?
2. What method of training could a footballer use?
3. How do you work out your maximum heart rate?
4. What percentages of your maximum heart rate is your target zone?
5. What is the second from bottom stage of the participation pyramid?
6. What is the definition of fitness?
7. Is flexibility a skill or health related component of fitness?
8. What component of your diet repairs and helps growth of muscle?
9. Who would take diuretics?
10. What might influence someone to participate in physical activity?
answers
1. What does the A stand for in SMART targets? Achievable
2. What method of training could a footballer use? Interval
3. How do you work out your maximum heart rate? 220-age
4. What percentages of your maximum heart rate is your target zone? 60-80%
5. What is the second from bottom stage of the participation pyramid? Participation
6. What is the definition of fitness? The ability to meed the demands of the environment
7. Is flexibility a skill or health related component of fitness? Health
8. What component of your diet repairs and helps growth of muscle? Protein
9. Who would take diuretics? Jockey, boxer
10. What might influence someone to participate in physical activity? any of the CHIPSR

Quiz
11. What are the three somatotypes?
12. What affects optimum weight?
13. What does F.I.T.T stand for?
14. What is the name of an agency involved in increasing participation in sport?
15. What are the three stages of a warm up?
16. Why do athletes take performance enhancing drugs?
17. What does PAR-Q stand for?
18. What are the three benefits of taking part in physical activity?
19. What is an example of a recreational drug?
20. What fitness test measures flexibility?

Answers
11. What are the three somatotypes? endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph
12. What affects optimum weight? age, gender, height, bone structure, muscle girth
13. What does F.I.T.T stand for? Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type
14. What is the name of an agency involved in increasing participation in sport?
Sport England, Youth Sport Trust, NGB
15. What are the three stages of a warm up? Pulse Raiser, Stretches, Skill related
16. Why do athletes take performance enhancing drugs? Fame, money, win, be the best
17. What does PAR-Q stand for? Physical activity readiness questionnaire
18. What are the three benefits of taking part in physical activity? Physical, mental, social
19. What is an example of a recreational drug? smoking, alcohol
20. What fitness test measures flexibility? sit and reach test
Full transcript