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ISRAEL & PALESTINE: BROKEN PROMISES
Transcript of ISRAEL & PALESTINE: BROKEN PROMISES
CURRENT SITUATION ISRAEL / PALESTINE
What is the current political situation in Israel / Palestine?
How did it come to be this way?
What is Zionism?
What were the broken promises made by Great Britain to both the Jews and the Arabs after WWI?
Could the current conflict between Israel and Palestinian have been avoided?
Jewish History in the Middle East
Judaism emerged around 1000 BC in the land of Israel, under king David.
After a period of foreign rule beginning in the 6th century BC, the Jews re-established power in the kingdom of Judea.
63 BC: Romans conquered Judea, incorporated it as a provence.
Suppressed the Jews and destroyed the main Temple in Jerusalem.
131: Jewish revolt because a Roman temple in the same place. Revolt was crushed brutally, after which most jews were killed, exiled or sold in to slavery, spreading all over Europe, the Middle East and Northern Africa.
Romans changed the name of the province to Palaestina.
In exile, Jews maintained their cultural bonds with their ancient homeland, hoping to return one day.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries saw anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia and Eastern Europe.
In Western Europe, Jews theoretically enjoyed equal status.
1894: Dreyfus affaire --> French officer unrightfully accused of treason, antisemitist frenzy amongst French citizens.
Theorodor Herzl, Viennese journalist reported on trial.
Concluded that the only solution was to build a Jewish State.
He organized modern political Zionism, Jewish nationalism dedicated to self-determination in the land of Israel.
Became the president of the World Zionist Organization.
"Zionism seeks to establish a home for the Jewish People in Palestine secured under public law."
Increasingly, Jews from E. and W. Europe bought land in post-WWI British Mandate of Palestine to settle and establish a society, until Israel's establishment in 1948.
Arab History in the Middle East
After the Romans expelled the Jews from Judea, for the next 500 years the term Palaestina referred to a large region in the Byzantine Empire.
During this time, the empire became Christian. Cities like Bethlehem, Nazareth and Jerusalem became significant.
613: Islam emerged in the Arabian peninsula, when prophet Muhammad began preaching.
Within a few decades Islam had spread throughout Arabia, Egypt and Palaestina.
Jerusalem was though to be the place where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
Built a shrine, the Dome of the Rock, where the Jewish Temple had once been.
Islam became the dominant religion in the region.
Arab Nationalism and the Arab League
From the 16th to 20th century, Arabs lived in the Ottoman Empire. Most Arabs shared Muslim religion with the Turks.
Arab Nationalist ideas began to spread in late 19th century.
1913: Arab nationalist students in Europe organized 1st Arab congress.
Greater Arab autonomy.
Against Zionist nationalism.
May 1945: League of Arab Nations is formed,
as a response to concerns about post-WWII divisions of territory in the Middle East.
opposition to international plan for Jewish State in British Mandate for Palestine.
State of Israel and ensuing wars
April, 1947, the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) recommended the end of the British Mandate for Palestine, effective May 14, 1948;
UN Resolution 181, the Partition Plan called for the establishment of three entities: a Jewish state, an Arab state, and an international zone around Jerusalem.
Resolution 181, passed in the UN General Assembly by a 33 to 13 vote, was accepted by Jews and was rejected by the Arab League.
May 14, 1948, the State of Israel declared its independence.
Immediately, five Arab states (members of the Arab League) invaded the State of Israel marking the first major action of the League and the first of several Arab-Israeli conflicts.
GREAT BRITAIN'S BROKEN PROMISES
Before WWI, the area now Israel and the Palestinian Territories was known as "Greater Syria" and had been part of the Ottoman Empire for the last six centuries.
Because of its geographic location, in between Europe, Asia and the Middle East, it was of strategic importance to the Allied Forces.
In order to ensure their co-operation, GB promised Arab leaders greater Arab sovereignty and territories after the war.
At the same time, GB enlisted Jewish support by promising to create a Jewish national state in the ancient Jewish homeland of Israel.
CLASS ASSIGNMENT: DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
Make groups of 4.
You will each be given one document with questions to analyze.
Once you have finished this, you will first discuss in pairs your findings, and then with the entire group.
Lastly, you will fill out the exit slip.