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Diagnosis Stage of the Collaboration and Consultation Process
Transcript of Diagnosis Stage of the Collaboration and Consultation Process
Generating Possible Interventions Phase 1 Setting Goals Characteristics of effective goal setting Focuses on which actions will effectively solve the identified problem/s Specify the task or objective Specify how the task or objective will be measured Specify the target or standard to be reached Specify the time span involved Prioritize possible goals Rate goals with respect to difficulty and importance Determine coordination requirements Effective goals are: -Written in clear, specific, behavioral terms - Verifiable 3 Factors that determine if a goal is realistic: 1. Resources
3. Obstacles How are goals useful? -Help to focus attention and action -Assist in mobilizing energy and effort -Provide an incentive to determine strategies to achieve them -Promote persistence when they are clear and specific Methods for gathering information Genetic Data Easily accessible, common information -Types of data used Current Descriptive Data Describes an organization as it currently exists Process Data Involves the organization's methods Interpretive Data Tends to be subjective and have emotional aspects to it Consultee-Client System Relationship Data The dynamics between the consultee and client Client System Behavior Data Includes characteristics of the client system Documents and Records Secondary data- the information has already been collected Questionnaires and Surveys Interviews Observation Defining the Problem After the data has been collected it must be analyzed • An accurate definition of the clients problem determines what behaviors are associated with the problem
• To define the problem the consultant and consultee should have a predetermined plan for analyzing the data • The consultant and consultee may engage in functional behavioral analysis and examine relationships among antecedents, behavior, and consequences
• Consultant and consultee would discuss the differences between the current circumstance and desired outcome as a team • In addition, cultural sensitivity needs to be shown
• Ignoring multicultural differences can lead to the misidentification of the problem • The analysis of data may contain more than one problem and should be prioritized by consultant and consultee
• Depending on how the consultee conceptualizes the problem influences the consultants conceptualization
• Creating a problem solving road map enhances the consultee’s understanding of what needs to be changed or done After the data has been analyzed the consultant and consultee must determine how the factors affect the problem. Questions they may encounter include:
How does it develop over time?
How past events are causing present problems?
What are future expectations? A specific problem statement with corresponding objectives is crucial in assuring the correct problem is attacked Consultants are encouraged to frame their problem statements in a language that is acceptable to the consultee
Several definitions of problem solving may include:
Reasonability: the degree to which the definition seems logical to both consultant and consultee
Workability: the degree of which the definition seems practical and leads to new directions of action
Motivation: the degree to which the consultee will be willing to take action on the defined problem •Once the consultant and consultee have chosen an acceptable goal they are ready for interventions or “strategies to accomplish their goal”
•An intervention is a force that attempts to modify some outcome
•In a consultation, interventions are the actions of activities that make up a plan to achieve a goal • It would be a mistake for the consultant to assume the consultee knows what goals they want to accomplish or know all the ways to accomplish them
• By discussing what types of intervention the consultee has tried, a consultant gets an insight of what works or may not work for the consultee Consultants can assist their consultees in generating possible interventions by using prompts that stimulate the consultee’s creativity. These include:
People who might assist consultee in achieving goals (resource people or role models)
Places that might be more appropriate for implementing a plan (resource centers)
Things that may lead to an easier way of accomplishing a goal (technology)
Prepackaged programs whose goals are similar to the consultee’s (stress management for teachers)
Consultee resources that can be used to a large degree to generate possible interventions, particularly when the consultee will carry out the intervention ultimately selected (a consultee being a counselor for a client whose goals have been set) •Brainstorming is a powerful tool that can help consultees generate a list of possible interventions
•The rules of brainstorming include:
Suspend judgements on strategies as they are being generated
Generate as many interventions as possible
Use piggybacking: use one idea to stimulate others
Creativity and novelty are at a premium when generating a list of possible interventions Historical Information Eg. An organization's mission statement Eg. Reports and memos Eg. An organization's physical layout Eg. An organization's command and salary structures Eg. How meetings are conducted Eg. How decisions are made Eg. The attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of members of the organization about the organization Eg. The nature of interpersonal relationships Eg. How communication takes place Eg. Level of intelligence Eg. Nature of the problem Eg. Related environmental conditions Scanning: -Unobtrusive vs obtrusive - Move less to more structured methods -Method depends on client and perceived problem Most common methods used: examining documents and records, giving questionnaires, surveys, and interviews, and observation Looking at the entire context in which the problem is thought to occur before using more specific methods Unobtrusive- doesn't interrupt the organization's normal flow of work Goal: look for a trend that is influencing the organization in the past and current documents and records + - the use of existing information, cost efficiency, relevant material, free from response bias, provision of historical context potential inaccuracy and incompleteness, limited availability, difficulties in data analysis, long times for review Standardized: available commercially or in research Modified: Standardized that have been adapted to obtain more specific data Custom made: created by consultant for a specific purpose. Possibly the most effective and powerful methods of gathering information + - non-empathetic, lack adaptability, response bias large sample, cost effective, many formats, can be analyzed easily, used for many purposes Unstructured: Structured and open-ended: Structured and fixed response: Predetermined questions and fixed responses to choose from (tend to have high reliability because they allow for standardization) Minimal direction by interviewer Predetermined questions + - adaptive, can provide a lot of valid and detailed information One of the most costly forms of data to obtain, may be affected by consultant bias, and inaccessibility of interviewees Naturalistic: observation in a particular environment without any targeted specific behaviors Systematic Direct: Observes a specific behavior in the environment that it occurs Structured: use procedures that specify what time of behavior is to be observed and how it will be recorded Semi Structured: unstructured observation, structured recording Unstructured: unstructured observation and recording + - strong face validity (objective), current data, adaptive, provides data on the behavior expensive, gives data for one point in time, observational bias, observer effect A process of moving towards a more specific, concreteness from a broad perspective - Realistic -What should be measured, how will it be measured? - making sure they are available -must have some control over whether or not the goal is met - must anticipate and eliminate them Think of a situation in which a student is having trouble at school. Role play this scenario in your group (counselor/s and student) making sure everyone has a turn to experience each role Make sure to use all 4 phases of diagnosis! Reference Dougherty, A. M. (2009). Psychological consultation and collaboration in school and community settings. (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. By Janet Jamesson and Raul Aguilera