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Child Sexual Abuse
Transcript of Child Sexual Abuse
Long-term Effects of CSA
Now that you know what child sexual abuse is, let's look at what the consequences are for children, not just immediately, but throughout the rest of their lives
Now that we've learned about what child sexual abuse is and why it's detrimental to children, we'll look at two psychological constructs to help us better understand abuse.
Talking to Your Child
According to two psychologists from the
Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
, education of parents and child is one method of attempting to prevent CSA (Kenny 2012). In these last slides, we'll look at ways a parent might approach talking to a child.
The Problem of CSA
Child sexual abuse is a major problem in the United States, with 25-33% (MNCASA) girls and 18-20% boys victims of sexual abuse before the age of 18 (NCVC 2012).
The Problem of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)
Long-term Effects of CSA
Talking to Your Child about Sexual Abuse
Before we get started, please take the following pre-test to gauge your initial knowledge:
Press the right and left arrow keys to move through the presentation
There will be a graded post-test at the end of the training module
For more information on a certain topic, see the "Additional Resources" page at the end of the module
What do you know about CSA?
Often people know a little, but not much about the facts of CSA. The topic is often viewed as taboo, so parents and children have little education on sexual
abuse (Kenny 2012).
Retrieved from http://privatemenorca.com/links.aspx
So What is Child Sexual Abuse?
Federal Civil Law
Maryland State Law
Center for Disease Control & Prevention:
There are many definitions of CSA. Let's look at a few first.
Based on these definitions, we'll define child sexual abuse as any act by a caregiver which exploits a child sexually and causes potential for harm or threat to the child.
This section will cover the different long-term consequences of child sexual abuse:
Physical and sexual
Emotional and psychological
Societal and economic
Children do not necessarily experience every consequence.
Physical and Sexual Consequences
Emotional and Psychological Consequences
Societal and Economic Consequences
Case Study 1
Why Education Matters
According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary a boundary is defined as:
This section will cover:
Definitions of boundaries
Different forms of boundaries
Ways to recognize boundaries and violations
(1) “something (such as a river, a fence, or an imaginary line) that shows where an area ends and another area begins”
(2) “a point or limit that indicates where two things become different”
Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Mexico_Territory
In a psychological sense, boundaries are what separate one person from another, physically, emotionally, spiritually and so forth (Katherine 1991). Webster's second definition says that a boundary is the "limit that indicates where two things become different." For us, the two things are two people, a child, and everyone around her.
Retrieved from: http://lizprovasi.wordpress.com/2012/04/01/personal-space/
This module uses the pronoun "he" for an abuser and "she" for a child or victim. This convention is for simplicity's sake, not because all abusers are male or all victims female. Abusers and victims can be any age, gender, race, ethnicity, etc. Men abuse both boys and girls, as do women. Please understand that these pronouns are interchangeable and not meant to represent the only gender abusers and victims may be.
Parents of children in the USA
Parents with an interest in learning about child abuse
Parents interested in learning about how to protect and teach their children about CSA
1. Recognize boundaries and boundary
2. Recognize some signs or symptoms
of child abuse
3. Know grooming techniques used by
4. Communicate with children about
sexual abuse, using appropriate
approaches based on age and
When parents don't know much about sexual abuse, they may be unable to recognize the signs when abuse occurs. The inability to recognize the signs that one’s child has been or is being abused leads to the continuation of the abuse, as well as a delayed ability to get a child professional help. Although it is not the only way to do so, educating parents is one valuable way to begin prevention of child sexual abuse (Kenny 2012).
We know that parents may not have a strong background on child sexual abuse, but why does this matter?
" 'Sexual abuse' means any act that involves sexual molestation or exploitation of a child by a parent or other person who has permanent or temporary care, custody, or responsibility for supervision of a child, or by any household or family member. 'Sexual abuse' includes incest, rape, sexual offense in any degree, sodomy, and unnatural or perverted sexual practices."
(Fam. Law § 5-701)
"(A) the employment, use, persuasion, inducement, enticement, or coercion of any child to engage in, or assist any other person to engage in, any sexually explicit conduct or simulation of such conduct for the purpose of producing a visual depiction of such conduct; or
(B) the rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children;..."
Reauthorized by Public Law, 102-295 (1992).
"Words or overt actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child. Acts of commission are deliberate and intentional; however, harm to a child may or may not be the intended consequence. Intentionality only applies to the caregivers' acts-not the consequences of those acts. For example, a caregiver may intend to hit a child as punishment (i.e., hitting the child is not accidental or unintentional) but not intend to cause the child to have a concussion." (CDC 2014)
This definition covers physical, emotional & sexual abuse.
Child Abuse (Acts of Commission)
Child Welfare: Sexual Acts
People may consider sexual abuse as acts such as rape, molestation, etc. as listed in the Federal Civil Definition; however, sexual abuse can include noncontact acts and sexual acts. For example, child sexual abuse include both the acts listed above, as well as inappropriate comments and sharing of pornographic material ("Definitions").
If you are interested in a more complete explanation of what acts and scenarios constitute sexual abuse, please visit the following link:
We will be covering:
1999: over 300,000 children in the USA victims of sexual abuse (Finkelhor 2008)
MN Dept of Health: effects of child sexual abuse cost $200,000 per child through “medical and mental health care, lost work, property damage, suffering and lost quality of life, criminal justice” (Kenny 2012)
Likelihood for child sexual abuse peaks at ages 4 and 13 (Synder 2000).
Guilt and shame
Anxiety and phobias
Difficulty forming healthy, trusting relationships
Negative reaction to sex
Unsafe sex practices
Physical injury or trauma
STDs or other venereal diseases
Acting out at home or in public, such as at school
Manipulation, aggression or exploitation of others
Difficulty focusing on school work
Adults who do not contribute fully at jobs, due to inability to focus
High medical and criminal justice expenses as a result of injuries sustained or accusations leveled against abusers
Lower feelings of safety in the community
Rob was physically and sexually abused as a child by his father. He suffered depression and attempted to commit suicide as a teenager. Once he was married, Rob had serious problems managing his anger. He often yelled at his wife and hit his baby. Ultimately, Rob went to therapy and received help for the difficulties he had navigating his adult life (Gilgun 2009).
Which of Rob's actions are indicators of childhood sexual abuse?
Depression & suicide attempts
Children who are abused may feel, even as adults, that they are not worthwhile. Extreme depression may lead to suicide attempts, because abused children may feel as though they have no where to turn.
Someone who is abused may in turn abuse others. In this case, Rob exhibited emotional abuse.
Anger: hitting child
Striking a child is another example of abuse, in this case physical abuse, that Rob exhibited. He was physically abused as a child and didn't know it was wrong.
Explanation (Gilgun 2009)
Now that you now what boundaries are, we'll look at the specific types of boundaries that have to do with child sexual abuse.
Types of Boundaries
Now that we know about different types of boundaries, let's look at how those boundaries can be crossed or violated. We'll look at:
One Type of Relationship
Sometimes it can be hard to recognize boundary violations, especially when an abuser doesn't want to be revealed. One way to recognize boundary violations is to ask yourself if only one type of relationship exists between your child and the adults around her (Katherine 1991).
Coach & Child
Religious Leader & Child
Teacher & child
Sources in the following Consequences slides come from: "Definitions", Katherine 1991, Kenny 2012, "Long-term consequences" 2013, RAINN 2009
Even though we can't physically
the boundary between AZ and NM, we know it exists.
Physically, you have both visible and invisible boundaries. These boundaries define who you allow to touch you and how close you allow people to get to you (Katherine 1991).
Your skin separates you from the rest of the world - it is a physical boundary (Katherine 1991).
Retrieved from: http://www.oregonchildsupport.gov/services/pages/modification.aspx
Her skin separates her from her t-shirt, the table and the play-doh
Physical Boundaries: Skin
Your concept of "personal space" also defines how close you allow people near you (Katherine 1991). Although the area differentiating your personal space is not visible, it is still a physical boundary.
Retrieved from: http://www.crossfitcentralli.com/wednesday-august-14th/
Therapist Darlene Lancer describes an emotional boundary as an "invisible line or force field" that separates you and your feelings from those of others around you (2013).
1. Emotional boundaries determine how you let people treat you. (Katherine 1991).
If someone asks questions about your life that you don't feel comfortable answering, you create your emotional boundary by politely declining to answer.
2. Healthy emotional boundaries keep you from taking responsibility for other people's problems or feelings (Lancer 2013).
If someone you love is angry about something that happened at work, healthy boundaries allow you to listen without feeling responsible for fixing the problem.
3. Healthy emotional boundaries keep you from accepting blame someone tries to put on you (Lancer 2013).
If someone blames you for something in their life, healthy boundaries will keep you from taking on this blame.
4. Emotional boundaries let people form healthy relationships.
When you have clear emotional boundaries you can self-reflect and develop as an individual. Personal development allows you to define how you relate to the world and what your believe (Katherine 1991).
Sexual boundaries are made up of both
They define your comfort with sexual activities: what you're willing to do when and with whom (Lancer 2013)
Friendships may include nonsexual touching - hugging, for example - but not kissing or other sexual touching (Katherine 1991).
Lovers may be comfortable with sexual relations, but a couple who has only gone on a few dates might not.
Why boundaries are important
Examples of crossing boundaries
How to identify boundary violations
Why Boundaries Matter
Examples of Boundary Crossing
This section will cover:
A definition of grooming
The stages of grooming that sex offenders follow
Signs of potential grooming or sexual abuse
What is Grooming?
Stages of Grooming
There are 5 stages that perpetrators go through when grooming a child for sexual abuse
Potential Signs of Grooming or Sexual Abuse
A predator's goal is to hoodwink parents so that they don't realize he is abusing their child (Weber). Here are some potential signs of grooming:
This table lists potential warning signs for teachers as predators; however, most of the signs can be expanded to any adult role in a child's life. Retrieved from: Knoll 2010
The previous topics have given you ways, as a parent, that you might recognize potential signs of abuse: through looking at boundary violations and grooming techniques. Now we'll look at one preventative suggestion.
Before the Conversation
Why have this conversation?
Before you decide to talk to your children, make sure you feel okay with the idea.
Reasons to Talk to Children About CSA
Help child notice and respect when she feels uncomfortable (NSOPW)
Teach child to recognize unusual behavior (Weber)
Show child that you are a resource and a place she can turn if something ever happens (Kim 2012).
Build trust between parent and child
NOTE: Even if you talk to your child about CSA, it is
her responsibility if abuse occurs.
What Age Child Does This Apply to?
Start conversations at a young age
As young as 2 years, according to Sandra Kim in consultation with DC Rape Crisis Center (2012)
Because children have a high risk of abuse at age 4 (Synder 2000)
Conversations with young children
include the words "sexual abuse"
Topics to Discuss
What you discuss and how you do so will vary based on age and development of your child.
Talking to Older Teenagers
Having the Conversation
After the Conversation
"Good fences make good neighbors."
It takes time and safe space to build a boundary. Once it is built, the boundary needs to be maintained, so that it does not fall apart (Katherine 1991). Boundaries are important because they:
Allow people to protect themselves
Allow a person to define and develop the concept of "self"
Allow people to separate themselves emotionally from those around them
Retrieved from: http://www.fence-pro.com/
We used the example of a boundary as a wall. Just as a wall can be broken, a boundary can be crossed. Here are a few examples of crossed boundaries:
Someone hits you
A parent dumps his problems on his child
A person is forced to engage in sexual activities that make her uncomfortable
Abuse crosses and destroys boundaries. CSA crosses physical, emotional and sexual boundaries. As a result:
A child cannot protect herself.
She loses a sense of self.
She is taught that her feelings and body are not important.
She may not understand how to treat others, even those she loves (Katherine 1991).
A coach's job is to deal with his athletes through sports. It is not okay for the coach to spend extended time alone with a single athlete. He should not hire an athlete to work in his yard, for example.
Retrieved from: http://ginibasketball.com/
A religious leader is a point of contact for a child learning about spirituality and her religion. Although the leader should be available for spiritual questions or advice in some religions, he should not form a friend-friend or confidante relationship with the child.
A teacher is responsible solely for the educational needs of his student. He should not spend excessive time alone with a student and should not meet with a student outside of school.
2 + 7 = 9
17x - 46y = 76/y
If something outside the normal relationship occurs, it is possible a boundary has been violated, even if abuse occurs. Such a violation can be an indication of abuse.
Grooming is the process by which a perpetrator prepares a child for sexual abuse, by gaining the victim's trust and building a relationship that will allow the perpetrator to continue abusing the victim over an extended period of time (Weber).
1. Seeking out and choosing a victim
2. Gaining a victim's trust and introducing secrecy
3. Forming an "emotional bond" with the victim
4. Desensitizing the victim to sexual content
5. Engaging in sexually abusive actions
Predator finds someplace where children are available.
Predator chooses a victim he perceives to be emotionally vulnerable; however:
Any child can be a victim of sexual abuse
A predator could choose a school, park or church to search for children. He could become a teacher, work for a park clean up service or become a nursery worker at the church.
An emotionally vulnerable child might include:
the youngest child in a family of many children
the child of a single parent
a child who seems isolated or has few friends
Predator tests victim's secret-keeping abilities before introducing anything inappropriate
, imagine a middle school basketball team. the coach decides on one of the athletes as a victim. He gives the girl a sweatshirt or a book to read. He tells her to keep it a secret, so that her team mates won't be jealous. He drives her home from practice, but tells her to keep it a secret because others might find it weird.
Predator works to fill a void in a victim's life.
He is sympathetic to her problems.
This bond is meant to be trusting and affectionate for the victim.
Ultimately, this trust will be destroyed.
Stacy is the youngest daughter of a single mother. Although she is happy at home, she has always wished to have a father and feels as though her mother is sometimes too busy to listen to her school-related worries. One of Stacy's teachers offers to listen to her problems. He takes the role of the father she never had. He fills the void of the missing father and the busy mother. Because the teacher fills these voids, Stacy trusts him and feels that he cares about her personally.
Once a victim is emotionally "comfortable" with the predator, he can begin to introduce physical touch and sexual ideas.
Physical touch may begin with non-sexual touching:
"Accidental" brushing of hands while walking or legs while sitting
Excessive hand shaking or high fives
Sexual ideas may be introduced through:
Conversation - sexual curiosity is natural in children
Jokes or off-hand comments
Magazines, porn or compromising pictures "accidentally" left on a table
Perpetrator manipulates victim's feelings to allow for a sustainable, abusive relationship.
Overt sexual touching begins.
Silence and secrecy are necessary to maintain this relationship.
Perpetrator may use threats to keep the victim quiet.
An adult in your child's life suddenly wants to become close friends
Your child receives unexplained gifts
Your child wants to spend extra time with an adult
There are many potential signs, so please visit the Additional Information page at the end of the module.
What Can A Parent Do?
"Make unannounced visits. Ask questions. Stay involved."
Considering everything we've discussed, the prospect of child sexual abuse is frightening. Gregory Weber, when writing about grooming, suggests that parents stay actively involved in their children's lives. The more aware parents are of the people in their children's lives, the better ability they have to see if something is going on. Often this means not leaving children unattended with other adults, even people you think you know, often (Weber).
Case Study 2 (Knoll 2010)
Ms. S was a high school basketball player whose parents divorced. One day after basketball practice, she had a long conversation with her coach, Ms. T, about basketball, as well as her parents' divorce.
Click R arrow to continue with story.
Subsequently, the coach praised Ms. S's basketball skills to the girl's mother and suggested extra private coaching sessions. Ms. S had extra practice sessions with her coach, to work on basketball skills. Ms. S's mother was relieved to see her daughter happier and doing well, so she supported Ms. T's extra coaching.
Ms. T took Ms. S to a sports seminar out of town, which required them stay in a hotel room together. Additionally, Ms. T bought Ms. S an iPhone. The girl spent more and more time with her coach, until the mother became concerned.
Why did Ms. S's mother become concerned?
Ms. S's mother ultimately became concerned when her daughter spent all of her time with Ms. T. At this point, sexual abuse had already occurred.
What signs might she have picked up on earlier?
Ms. T suddenly befriended the mother.
Ms. T spent excessive time alone with Ms. S.
Ms. T gave Ms. S an iPhone
Ms. T invited Ms. S to stay someplace overnight.
Ms. S had a significant attitude change after she began spending time with Ms. T, an indication of possible attachment,
Ms. S could have not allowed her daughter to spend time alone with Ms. T, unexpectedly showed up an extra practice or reported concerns to the school.
A Couple Tips
If you have a partner or spouse
Talk to that person before talking to your child
You want to make sure both of you are on the page about what to discuss and how
If you have multiple children
Decide whether to talk to them together or separately
Group children by age group, so that you talk to all your children in an age-appropriate manner (i.e. Talk differently to a 3-year-old and a 17-year-old.)
Talking to Young Children
Teach the correct names of the body parts, so that your child is able to effectively communicate if someone hurts her (Kim 2012).
Teach your child the Underwear Rule and the PANTS acronym ("Underwear" 2014)
click on picture below
The Underwear Rule teaches that parts of your body covered by underwear or a bathing suit are private
Explain that privates can only be touched by a doctor and he needs to tell you what he's doing first (NSOPW).
Talk about the child's right to say "No" to touch (Kim 2012).
If someone wants to give your child a
hug, even a family member, and she
feels uncomfortable, it's okay to say No.
Talking to Older Children and Preteens
Remind child that she has the right to determine who touches her body
Encourage child to trust her instincts around people who make her feel uncomfortable (NSOPW)
Talk about secrets that are okay to keep and those that it's okay to tell her parents. Explain that it isn't breaking the secret to share with parents (Kim 2012).
Tell your child to come to you if an adult:
Asks her to keep a secret
Gives her a gift or spends time alone with her
Looks at her or touches her in a way that doesn't make her feel okay
Tell your child you will never blame her if someone hurts her, no matter what that person says (Kim 2012).
Sometimes sexual abuse may feel good to a child, but still make her feel uncomfortable, dirty or not okay. If you're worried something has happened to her, ask her if someone has touched her in a way that doesn't make her feel okay, because she may not feel as though someone has hurt her (RAINN 2009).
Teach your teen respect for her body and that she has the right to say "No" to anyone, adults or peers (NSOPW).
Teach her that inappropriate relationships with an adult are
not her fault
Teach your teen to trust her instincts in uncomfortable situations.
Discuss boundaries and grooming, if you feel she is emotionally ready to deal with the subjects
Help your teen build self-esteem and feel worthwhile, through earning money, becoming involved in an activity or learning to take care of herself. Predators are more likely to choose victims that seem vulnerable or unhappy (NSOPW).
It's best to make this conversation as comfortable and natural as possible, so here are a few tips along the way:
Places to Talk
Talk someplace your child feels comfortable (RAINN 2009):
Talk at bedtime
Talk during bath time or going swimming
Talk in the car
Take a walk together and talk along the way
Talk anywhere your child feels comfortable
Retrieved from http://www.libertybridgeacademy.org/on-bedtime/
Retrieved from http://ashadeofpen.wordpress.com/tag/father/
How Do I Introduce This Topic?
A Couple Suggestions
If you're unsure how to broach the topic, start with one of the suggestions above.
Table 1. Methods of introducing a conversation about CSA.
Make this conversation the first of many - don't feel the need to talk about all of the suggested topics in one conversation.
Be honest when answering questions your child may have - honesty will keep the topic from seeming taboo or scary (NSOPW).
Don't broach the topic in front of someone you suspect has abused your child
If your child doesn't seem ready to talk, don't push the conversation - it's okay to wait.
Debrief yourself (and partner):
What went well and what didn't?
Was there anything your child said that concerned you
How could you improve the conversation?
Make yourself available for questions; your child needs to see that when you say you're available, that you really are.
If You Are Concerned That Your Child Has Been Abused
Follow up with your child about your concerns. Please see "More Information" below.
Contact the authorities: police, child protective services or a professional.
approach the suspected abuser, as this action could endanger yourself or your child (RAINN 2009).
Keep your child away from the suspected abuser ("Protecting your Child").
Child sexual abuse is a difficult topic to think about and discuss. Through the discussions of boundaries and grooming, we've looked at how parents might be able to recognize potential warning signs for abuse. Finally, by looking at how a parent might approach talking to a child about abuse, we've looked at the idea of prevention. There are a lot more sources out there to continue to educate you. If you have any questions or suggestions, please contact me.
Talking to your child
What to do in case of abuse
Books to read with your child
Sandra Kim: “10 Ways To Talk To Your Kids About Sexual Abuse,” Everyday Feminism Magazine. Available online: https://everydayfeminism.com/2014/02/10-ways-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-sexual-abuse/
Jon Holsten: “Talking to Your Kids About Sexual Abuse,” Focus on the Family website: http://www.focusonthefamily.com/parenting/sexuality/talking_about_sex/talking_to_your_kids_about_sexual_abuse.aspx
“Talking to your child if you suspect that they are being sexually abused,” Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network website: https://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/child-sexual-abuse/if-you-suspect
“Talking to Your Child About Sexual Abuse,” The U.S. Department of Justice NSOPW website: http://www.nsopw.gov/%28X%281%29S%2854gg51be1b203qr2rkp2yolu%29%29/en-US/Education/TalkingChild?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1
“Talking Tips: how to talk about the Underwear Rule,” NSPCC website: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/help-and-advice/for-parents/keeping-your-child-safe/the-underwear-rule/talking-tips/talking-tips_wda97079.html
Call the police: 911
Bring your child to the doctor immediately (cite)
Call the National Sexual Assault Hotline: (800) 656-HOPE
Call the Child Help National Child Abuse Hotline: (800) 4-A-CHILD
“Help and Support for Victims,” The U.S. Department of Justice NSOPW website. http://www.nsopr.gov/%28S%28jwk3qddqp2e5o5arr2pncx1d%29X%281%29%29/en/Education/HelpSupport
Visit State Resources list, Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network website: http://www.rainn.org/get-help/local-counseling-centers/state-sexual-assault-resources
A Very Touching Book
by Jan Hindman (children)
Everyone’s got a Bottom
by Tessa Rowley (3-8 years)
NoNo the Little Seal
by Sherri Petterson and Judith Feldman (3-10 years)
Some Secrets Should Never Be Kept
by Jayneen Sanders (3-11 years)
The Right Touch
by Sandy Kleven (3-7 years)
I said No!
by Zach King and Kimberly King (5-10 years)
Some Parts are Not for Sharing
by Julie Le Frederico (1-5 years)
It’s My Body
by Lory Freeman (2-8 years)
No is Not Enough
by Caren Adams, Jennifer Fay and Jan Loreen-Martin (teens)
By Silence Betrayed
by John Crewdson (adults)
Please take the following:
Post-test (if you would like to receive your grade, please include your email)
Stages consolidated from Weber and Knoll
• “boundary.” (2014). Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/boundary
• “Child Maltreatment: Definitions.” (2014). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childmaltreatment/definitions.html
• Child Welfare Information Gateway. “Definitions, Scope, and Effects of Child Sexual Abuse.” Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/sexabuse/sexabuseb.cfm
• Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). “Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect.” Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.
• Finkelhor, David, et al. (Aug 2008). “Sexually Assaulted Children: National Estimates and Characteristics.” NISMART U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency. Retrieved from www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ojjdp
Gilgun, Jane F. (2009). "Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment, Intervention, & Prevention." Title IV-E Learning Modules.
• Katherine, Anne. (1991). Boundaries Where You End And I Begin. New York: Parkside Publishing Company.
• Kenny, Maureen C. and Sandy K. Wurtele. (2012). “Preventing Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Ecological Approach.” Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21:361–367.
• Kim, Sandra. (26 Oct. 2012) “10 Ways To Talk To Your Kids About Sexual Abuse.” Everyday Feminism Magazine. Retrieved from https://everydayfeminism.com/2014/02/10-ways-to-talk-to-your-kids-about-sexual-abuse/
Knoll, James. “Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders.” Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 2010 Jul-Aug; 19 (4): 371-86.
• Lancer, D. (2013). “What Are Personal Boundaries? How Do I Get Some?”. Psych Central. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-are-personal-boundaries-how-do-i-get-some/00016100
• Maryland Fam. Law § 5-701
• Minnesota Coalition Against Sexual Assault. “Statistics.” Retrieved from http://www.mncasa.org/about_stats.html
• National Center for Victims of Crimes. (2012). “Child Sexual Abuse Statistics.”
• “Protecting Your Children: Advice from Child Molesters.” The Center for Behavioral Intervention in Beaverton, Oregon. Retrieved from http://dcf.vermont.gov/sites/dcf/files/pdf/protectkids/Protecting_Your_Children.pdf
• Synder, Howard N. (Jul. 2000). “Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics.” The U.S. Department of Justice: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
• “Talking to Your Child About Sexual Abuse.” The U.S. Department of Justice NSOPW: Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved from http://www.nsopw.gov/%28X%281%29S%2854gg51be1b203qr2rkp2yolu%29%29/en-US/Education/TalkingChild?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1
• Reauthorized by Public Law, 102-295 (1992).
• “Talking to your child if you suspect that they are being sexually abused.” (2009). Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network. Retrieved from https://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/child-sexual-abuse/if-you-suspect
• “The Underwear Rule.” (2014). National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Retrieved from http://www.nspcc.org.uk/help-and-advice/for-parents/keeping-your-child-safe/the-underwear-rule/the-underwear-rule_wda97016.html
• Weber, Gregory M. “Grooming Children for Sexual Molestation.” The Zero - The Official Website of Andrew Vachss. Retrieved from http://www.vachss.com/guest_dispatches/grooming.html