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Copy of timeline project of art history
Qain Liuon 7 December 2012
Transcript of Copy of timeline project of art history
& Art Works 1200-1400 in Italy Diversity of style characterizes the art of 13th-century Italy, with some artists working in the newly revived classical tradition, some in the mode of Gothic France, ans others in the Italo-Byzantine style (maniera greca). The leading sculptors are Nicola Pisano, Giovanni Pisano, who were sculptors of church pulpits, and leading painters working in the Italo-Byzantine are Bonaventura Berlinghieri and Cimabue (Cimabue participated the move from Byzantine to naturalistic art). In the 14th century, Italy consisted of numerous independent city-states, such as Venice, Florence, LuccaMeanwhile, all the city-states shared in the prosperity of the period. However, during the 14th century, Italy suffered the most devastating natural disaster in European history- the Black Death that swept through Europe - but it was also the time when Renaissance Humanism took root, especially in Italy. Although religion continued to occupy a primary position in Italian life, scholars and artists became much more concerned with natural world. The greatest masters were Giotto di Bondone, Duccio di Buoninsegna, and Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Those artists concentrated on nature more than Byzantine conventions. Painting, sculpture, and architecture of the 14th century were still influenced by Gothic and Byzantine styles, and gilding technique was still employed. But all the artists began to learn from nature-the world of visible subjects, no matter the human forms, volumn of bodies, facial expressions, or individual features, even if the gold leaf changed to convey the spatial illusion rather than decorating pattern. As for the medium and techniques, the painters used tempera as a significant material painting on the wood panel; since Goitto employed fresco on the Arena Chapel, this painting method became well developed and explored. Furthermore, the composition of the period was starting a transition; for example, Giotto arranged two figures seen from the back to represent an innovation away from the formal Italo-Byzantine style. In a word, Italian artists were conscious of the concept of Renaissance Humanism. Gothic, Byzantine
and Classical styles in Italy Technique, Material
& Art works Effects
& Social- Political Events Florence
Milan 1200-1400 in Italy Tempera on wood
Architecture building materials
Carving Religious concerns
Art about government
Competitiveness 1200-1400 in Italy In the 15th century, Flanders was not an independent state but a region under the control of the duke of Burgundy, the ruler of Burgundy and Flanders was Duke Philip the Bold. In fact, the most powerful rulers north of the Alps during the first-quarters of the 15th century were the dukes of Burgundy, who were major patrons of paintings, sculptures, and architectures. They also understood how art could support their dynastic and political goals as well as adorn their castles and town houses. For example, Carthusian monastery at Champmol was commissioned by the Duke Philip the Bold. Meanwhile, Flemish painters popularized the use of oil paints on wooden panels. Because the features of oil paints enriched the pictorial description, such as Melchior Broederlam's Retable de Champmol, the adoption of oil-based pigments was the leading medium for painting. Beside, Altarpiece with folding wings is a major art form in churches and private homes, and the portraits of donors are also present as witnesses to the sacred events. As the typical of the "Northern Renaissance" painting, the everyday objects depicted often have symbolic significance. The leading masters were Robert Campin, Jan van Eych, Rogier van der Weyden, Petrus Christus, Dirk Bouts, Hans Memling, and Hugo van der Goes. Moreover, Van Eych's self- portrait, Man in a Red Turban, and Rogier's Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin reveal the growing self-awareness of Renaissance artists. In conclusion, the artists and patrons were all interested in the reality(both physical and psychological ) the portraits could reveal. France, 1400-1500 The core of the Holly Roman Empire was Germany. Because the HRE did not participate the Hundred Year's War, the economy remained stable and prosperous. Without a dominated court to commission artworks, wealthy merchants and clergy became the primary German patrons during the 15th century. As for the art genres in the 15th century, the Late Gothic Style remained popular; for example, the large carved wooden retables featured highly Gothic tracery. The most significant German innovation of the 15th century was the development of printmaking process, which soon was used to produce books with woodcut illustrations. Meanwhile, German artists such as Martin Schongauer were also the earliest masters of engraving. What's the difference between woodcut and engraving? Actually, Woodcuts are relief prints in which the artists carves out the areas around the printed lines, a method that prints from a plate with raised characters. On the contrary, Intaglio is the opposite of relief printing. A printing process that uses an etched or engraved plate, the plate is smeared with ink and wipe clean, then the ink left in the recesses makes the print. Furthermore, this Intaglio technique allows for a wider variety of linear effects because the image directly onto a metal plate. Burgundy and Flanders, 1400-1500 In contrast to the prosperity and peace Flanders enjoyed during the 15th century, in France, the Hundred Year's War crippled economic enterprise and brought political instability. However, the anarchy of war and the weakness of the kings gave rise to a group of duchies, each with significant power. The dukes of Berry, Bourbon, and Nemours, as well as French court, were also the main art patrons. The Italian Renaissance artists had revived the pictorial principles of classical antiquity, which influenced the French painters' interest in illusion. So they produced exquisitely refined illuminated manuscripts. Moreover, among the most important manuscripts painting was a new conception and presentation of space. The leading painters were Limbourg Brothers. Holly Roman Empire, 1400-1500 Italy, 1400-1500 Overall, the spread of Humanism, economic prosperity, and artistic genius nourished a significantly new artistic culture-the Renaissance, which was the rebirth of classical values in art and life. The Renaissance, such an Artistic development in 15th-century Italy, forever changed the direction and perception of art in the Western World. Definitely, the greatest center of the Renaissance was Florence, home of the powerful Medici, who were among the most ambitious art patrons in history. Meanwhile, the Renaissance interest in classical culture naturally also led to the revival of Greco-Roman mythological themes in art making. Moreover, the humanists not only acquired information in a wide range of subjects but also fostered a belief in individual potential and encouraged individual achievement as well as civic responsibility. The marvelous artists were Filippo Brunelleschi, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello, Masaccio, and Sandro BotticelliAlthough Florentine artists led the way in creating the Renaissance in art and architecture, the papacy in Rome and the Princely Court in Urbino, Mantua, and elsewhere also also major art patrons. First of all, among the most important papal commissions of the 15th century was the decoration of the walls of Sistine Chapel with fresco. Secondly, under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, Urbino became a major center of Renaissance art and culture. The leading painter in Federico's employ was Piero della Francesca, a master of light and color. Thirdly, Mantua became an important art center under Marquis Ludovico Gonzaga, who brought in Alberti to rebuild the church of Sant's Andrea. Gonzaga also hired Andrea Mantegna to decorate the Camera Picta of hid Ducal Palace, where the painter produced the first completely consistent illusionistic decoration of an entire room. Geographic Locations
& Art Works Burgundy & Flanders
Italy 1400-1500 Technique,
&Art Works 1400-1500 Large Altarpiece
Tempera and Oil on Wood
Fresco "Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets" was painted by Cimabue, between 1280 and 1290 in Florence. The medium of this painting was Tempera and Gold Leaf on wood. In general, it reveals the painter's reliance on Byzantine models, such as frontality, stiff gestures, and draperies, as well as the gold background. Differently, the gold Cimabue used to embellish the folds of the Madonna's robe is no longer merely decorative pattering. In fact, the function of gold here is to enhance the three-dimensionality of draperies. But Cimabue also created a deeper space around Madonna, which is not common in Byzantine style. Effects
Political Events the Renaissance Humanism
Rise of artists' consciousness
Rise of wealthy family chapel endowment
Political fluctuations of Medici& patronized arts Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of the Shepherds was a relief sculpture, created by Nicola Pisano between 1259 and 1260, in Pisa. The medium of this sculpture was marble. Some element of this pulpit ornamentation carried on classical traditions. Even though Byzantine and Gothic styles dominated in Italy, some artists still incorporated classical elements. For example, the densely large-scale figures seem to derive from the composition found on Roman sarcophagi, as well as the fact type, beards, and the volume of individual figures. 1200-1400 The Doge's Palace was built in Venice, between 1340-1345, but the architect was unknown. Actually, the Doge's Palace was the Venetian republic's seat of government, it was the most ornate public building in Medieval Italy. The Doge's Palace represents a delightful and charming variant of Late Gothic architecture. For example, the wall's delicate pattering in cream-and-rose colored windows manages to balance the heavy building form and make top stories appear paper-thin. Furthermore, Venice, of course, is renowned for its street and water. Because its unique geographic features, the Venetian Gothic is ideally suited to Venice, which floats between water and air. Milan Cathedral was built in Milan since 1386, but as for the architects, they were unknown because of these experts from France, Germany, England and Italy. To be honest, Milan Cathedral looks so weird but also grand and massive. The elaborate facade is a confused mixture of Late Gothic and Renaissance elements. The building's proportion, particularly the nave's became Italian, and the surface decorations and details remain ed the Gothic, such as multiple pinnacles and elaborate traceries. Ironically, Milan Cathedral with so many unmistakable features of Gothic stands as a symbol of the waning of the style and the advent of the new Renaissance coming. The Early Renaissance Bonaventura Berlinghieri, who was a leading painter working in the Italo- Byzantine style, painted Saint Francis Altarpiece in 1235, and the medium was tempera on wood. Berlinghieri created Christ and two angles, whose frontal poses, prominent halos, and lack of modeling reveal the Byzantine roots of his style. Meanwhile, he also employed the use of gold leaf, which emphasizes the the image's flatness and spiritual nature. But the most interesting part of this painting is that six narrative scenes along the sides of the panel, and those provide an active contrast to the stiff formality of the large central image of Francis. Because of the limitation of tempera, I can figure out the small strokes on the panel. Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints was painted by Duccio, between 1308 and 1311, and the material was tempera and gold leaf on wood. Overall, Duccio derived the composition of formality and symmetry, as well as the figures and facial types, obviously form the Byzantine style. But the artist relaxed the strict frontality and rigidity of the figures. From those saints and angels' gestures, I can feel they turn to each other in quiet conversation. Further, Duccio individualized the faces of the four saints kneeling in the foreground without any stiffness. Similarly, he softened the usual Byzantine hard body outlines and drapery patterning. For example, the drapery of all the figures falls and curves loosely, and there are no longer any long and strong contours lines to depict the folds of drapery. Simone Martini painted Annunciation Altarpiece, in 1333, and the medium was tempera and gold leaf on wood. Because of the contact with Northern European painters, Martini created the so-called International Style. First of all, Martini's Annunciation altarpiece features elegant figures and radiant colors, fluttering lines, and weightless figures in a spaceless setting. Secondly, Martini used a lot of gold leaf not only for background pattering, but also for the intricate ornamentation, such as the elaborate tracery and halos of the richly tooled French Gothic style. Finally, the face types, postures and expressions are not Italo- Byzantine style, and those characters are more natural. I mean they behave like real human beings do. Besides, I'm very fond of the angel Gabriel's sumptuous gown and his beating iridescent wings. Orvieto Cathedral was designed by Lorenzo Maitani, begun 1310. The Orvieto facade imitates some elements of the French Gothic structure, such as the three-quarter view of the cathedral. Further, the pointed gables over the doorways, the rose windows. and the large pinnacles derived form French architecture. However, the facade of Orvieto Cathedral is merely a Gothic overlay masking a timber-roofed basilica. Lamentation was painted by Giotto in 1305. As for the mediums and techniques he employed, fresco is a mural-painting technique, but it is also a complicated technique because the artist must apply permanent pigments on the wet plaster before the plaster dries. With the limitation of fresco, Giotto designed the way that grouped the figures within the constructed space. Each group has its own definition and contributes to the rhythm of the whole composition. For example, the diagonal form of the rock is a direction of sight, pointing out the focus that is the dread Christ in the left-hand corner. The focal point is off center. In the Lamentation, the illusion of space is another feature of Giotto’s style. For instance, the foreshortened angels in grief are divided into different groups with various tints and shades of azure. This method definitely helps Giotto to create a three dimensional surface. Furthermore, because of the smooth texture of fresco, all the figures are weighty, soft, and sculpturesque. The faces are depicted with precision and power. In a word, the figures are natural human forms. Lamentation not only conveys the beauty of simplicity and naturalism, but also the combination of specific colors and descriptive details. Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of the shepherds was made by Giovanni Pisano from 1297 to 1301, and the material was marble. Different form his father, Giovanni arranged the figures loosely and dynamically. They twist and bend in excited animation, and the space that open deeply between them suggest their motion. Of course, Giovanni in a style derived from French Gothic, such as swiftly turning, sinuous draperies, and slender figures with emotion. Birth of the Virgin which is a large triptych, was painted by Pietro Lorenzetti in 1342, and the medium was tempera on wood. In this three-part panel painting, Lorenzetti achieved a remarkable degree of spatial illusionism by overlapping, and high and low placement. Particularly, the one of vertical members cut across one of the figures, blocking part of it from view, strengthens the illusion. Actually, Saint Anne is the center of an episode that occurs in a upper-class Italian house of the period Triumph of Death was painted on the wall in 1330s, so the medium was full fresco. As for the painters, it could be Francesco Traini or Buonamico Buffalmacco. The fresco vividly captures the horrors of the Black Death and forces viewers to confront their mortality. In addition to these direct and straightforward scenes, the mural contains details that convey more subtle message. For example, the painter depicted some who appear unprepared for death, some wealthy ladies and gentlemen turn away with delicate disgust, and some who are the corpses lying down the coffins, The imagery was surely a warning against greed and lust with naturalism and emotive power. Peaceful city was painted by Ambrogio Lorenzetti from 1338 to 1339, and the material was fresco. Peaceful city is a panoramic view of Siena, with its clustering palaces, towers, streets, and walls, and those overlap together. The city's traffic moves peacefully, guild members ply their trades and crafts, and several rediant maidens hand in hand, perform a graceful circling dance. The dance and maidens, in fact, serve as a metaphor for a peaceful commonwealth. To some extent, the artist observed his city, its architecture carefully, and the detail he depicted were also stunning, suah as the colors of architecture, the postures of urban people, and the shapes of windows. But from my curiosity, why all the windows are colored so dark and seem no glass? Peaceful Country was also painted by Arbrogio Lorenzetti, and the medium was fresco. Lorenzetti's peaceful country presents a bird's eye view of the whole countryside. Its villas, castles, farmlands and peasants go about their seasonal occupations. In this sweeping view of an actual countryside, Peaceful City represents the one of the first landscape in Western art since antiquity. Obviously, Lorenzetti specialized in painting the character of a specific place and environment, despite of city view or countryside view by careful observation. By thr way, I like the tonality of this fesco. Florence Cathedral was designed by Arnolfo di Cambio and others, begun 1296. As for the reason why they built this cathedral, in fact, Florentines translated their pride in their predominance into landmark building. Further, this structure also reveals the competitiveness Florentines felt with cities such as Siena and Pisa. In contrast with French Gothic, the Florence Cathedral clings to the ground and has no aspiration toward flight. All the emphasis is on the horizontal elements of the design, such as simple geometric volumes. Palazzo Pubblico, being built from 1288 to 1309, was a civic commission for Siena. Actually, Siena was a proud commercial and political rival of Florence. Hence, building the civic meeting hall in the main square was a great city's cathedral. As for the structure, the Palazzo Pubblico has a slightly concave facade and a gigantic tower visible from miles around. This imposing building I believe must have earned the admiration of Siena's citizens as well as of the visitors to the city, because it is a splendor for people to respect the power and success of Siena. Mérode Altarpiece was painted by Robert Campin form 1425 to 1428, and the medium was oil on wood. It was a private commission for household prayers. As for the subject, Rober presented biblical scenes as taking place in Flemish house, such as accessories, furniture, and utensils pinpoint the setting as Flemish. But those objects represented are not merely decorative, and they also function as religious symbols. Look at the left panel, the altarpiece donors kneel in the garden and witness the momentous event. Donor portrait was very popular in the 15th century. Obviously, the painting skills of Robert was much better, especially, the usage of oil paint to depict the silky draperies. Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride was painted by Jan Van Eyck in 1434, and the material was oil on wood. Jan Van Eych depicted Arnolfini and his bride, hand in hand, are taking the marriage vows, and the most interesting thing is he also painted his self-portrait reflected in the mirror of the backgroud. Although it is extremely tiny, I also can figure out the stunning details through it. In this painting, the daily subjects clearly symolize the riligious thing and the bride's fidelity and fertility, such as the mirror which represents the all-seeing eye of God. As for his painting skills, Van Eyck distinguished textures carefully; for example, I can show confidently which on is made of metal, which one is made of animal fur, and which one is made of eood. In aditon, he depicted the light from the window on the left reflecting off various surfaces. Everything in this painting is so real, and the portraits of the couple is painted exquisitely, vividly. So, Jan Van Eyck established the portraiture as an important art form. January was painted by Limbourg Brothers who furthered the manuscript painting, from 1413 to 1416, and the medium was ink on vellum. First of all, they created expanded the illusionistic capacity of illumination by the method of overlapping. directional lines and high and low placement of objects and figures. Secondly, bright colors and radiant expressions are attractive to the viewers. Finally, the elaborate patterns they employed are stunning to embellish the the palace, the soldiers and the gowns of ducks and his guests. But all the patterns are not two dimensional; in fact, they all change the shapes according to the transitions of different objects. Martin Schongauer used the engraving technique to create Saints Anthony Tormented by Demons, from 1480 to 1490, and the medium was Intaglio of printmaking. Differently form woodcut medium, the technique of engraving (inscribing on a hard surface) proved much more flexible to create a marvelous variety of tonality and texture. For example, the smooth skin, coarse cloth, and feathery hair, etc. are all incised well to seem distinct. During the process of engraving, lines are the most significant roles to express tints and shades, as well as the emotion. Here, Martin employed parallel hatching and cross-hatching to describe the forms. Gates of Paradise was designed by Lorenzo Ghiberti, from 1425 to 1452, and the medium was gilded bronze. Ghiberti specialized in representing space in his relief sculptures. Michelangelo later declared these as "so beautiful that they would do well for the gates of Paradise." Overall, the complete gilding of the reliefs creates an effect of great splendor and elegance. Less is more! Ghiberti created the illusion of space partly through the pictorial perspective and sculptural means. I like the descriptive lines here to depict the sacred scenes. Deposition was painted by Rogier Van Der Weyden in 1435, and the material was oil on wood. In this painting, Rogier arranged his figures in a dynamic composition, stressing human action and drama. In stead of creating a deep landscape setting for spatial illusion, he compressed his figures and actions onto a shallow stage, and the postures and gestures were somewhat dramatic, because he pursued to express maximum action within a limited space. In this oil painting, Rogier employed a variety of contrast colors, such as Olivia green and cherry red, yellow orange and azure, etc. to apply those colors to the drawing atmosphere. Honestly, his oil painting skills are super preeminent to distinguish the texture, face type, and expressions. In addition, the emotional impact on the viewer is immediate and unforgettable. October was painted by Limbourg Brothers, from 1413 to 1416, and the medium was ink on vellum. In contrast, the illustration of October focuses on the peasantry. Actually, before October the peasants do not appear particularly unhappy as they go about their tasks. The farming scene they depicted indicates the growing artistic interest in naturalism. Portinari Altarpiece was painted by Hugo Van Der Goes in 1476, and the material was tempera and oil on wood. The composition may reflect the tilted stage floors of contemporary mystery plays. It is a drama. Hugo employed the pictorial method to describe the landscape in the background, and I can figure out the architectures were Flemish. But I'm a little confused about the proportions of the figures, because some are huge, and some are extremely small. They seemingly come from the different worlds. That's really interesting! David was modeled by Donatello; as for the date of his bronze David, it is unknown. First of all, David is a freestanding nude statue, and his posture is not dramatic. He seems like a real human, not a hero, an athlete, or a pagan god. He is a youth. Secondly, Donatello used perspective system in the relief sculpture, representing one aspect of the Renaissance revival. I can figure out his head, his chest, his bending leg and his sword are located subtly in the different space. That's awesome! Finally, the beauty of simplicity is stunning, including the smooth surface of the sculpture. Tribute Money was painted by Masaccio, from 1424 to 1427, and the medium was fresco. When I saw Masaccio's fresco, I immediately thought of Giotto's simple grandeur. But Masaccio's figures convey a greater psychological and physical credibility. Masaccio created the volume and bulk of the figures by modeling not with a flat, neutral light; he arranged a specific light source outside the picture. The figures here move freely and reveal the real body structure, such as bones, muscles, and joints. The composition is designed to group the figures in a circular depth in the spatial background. The most important feature is that Masaccio used the atmospheric perspective to indicate the distance. Birth of Venus was painted by Sandro Botticelli, from 1484 to 1486, and the medium was tempera on canvas. The theme was a subject of poem, retelling the Greek myth. Botticelli depicted Venus as nude in the center of the painting. I think Botticelli is the most influential and significant painter to represent the Renaissance Humanism. His style is distinct from other artists who pursued to comprehend humanity with a rational, empirical order. In deed, Botticelli's elegant and beautiful style seems to ignore all the scientific knowledge, such as perspective and anatomy. But who can say the figures of Botticelli are not beautiful? The atmosphere is full of romance and lyric. He expanded another Renaissance humanism. Christ Delivering the Key of the Kingdom to Saint Peter was painted by Perugino, who was among the painters among the pope employed, and the material was fresco. The figures grouped together and created a great stage space that could extend the distance to a point of converge in the doorway of the central-plan temple, and the temple's doorway is a vanishing point. Perugino also used the parallel lines of the pavement to strengthen the intervening space. Figures in the middle distance emphasized its density and order by their sacred arrangement. As for the composition, Perugino designed both two-dimensional and three-dimensional space to tie every subject here clearly. The Man in a Red Turban was painted by Jan Van Eyck 1433, and the medium was oil on wood. This painting seems to be the first Western painted portrait, and sitter looks directly at the viewer. I also believe it is a self-portrait of Jan Van Eyck. The painter created the illusion from a true three-quarter head pose, the dark background, and careful depiction of his head. I like this portrait not only his gaze but also his self-consciousness to identy himself as a model to express his emotion. Pazzi Chapel was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, begun 1442, and the material was unknown. The Pazzi Chapel presented Brunelleschi with the opportunity to explore his interest. I think it is much better than a basilican church. The focal point was the central dome-covered space. As for the color of this chapel, I believe it seems a little pale, but these colors are durable and cheap, becoming extremely popular and providing the basis for a flouring family business. Battle of Sam Romano was painted by Paolo Uccello in 1455, and the medium was tempera on wood. The panel painting is the commission of Lorenzo de's Medici. Although the scenes commemorate the Florentine victory over the Sienese, it also acknowledges the Medici, such as the bright orange fruit. I'm crazy about his perspective, especially, the road in the background to provide a great vision of space. Uccello created a composition that recalls the International style, and it is a splendor of his moderate colors. A good painter has two chief objects to paint- man and the intention of his soul. The former is easy, the latter harder, for it must be expressed by gestures and movement of the limbs.... The High Renaissance & Mannerism 1500-1600 Spain Italy HRE France Netherlands The High Renaissance style dominated the remainder of the 16th century; the Late Renaissance, called Mannerism, was a new style and challenged the High Renaissance style. The major regions were Florence, Rome and Venice. Italian art of this period uniformly exhibits an astounding mastery, both technical and aesthetic; no singular artist style can characterize 16th century. I call the High Renaissance is the age of Hundred Flowers Blossom for Art. The High Renaissance Mannerism 1500-1520 1520-1600 A prime feature of Mannerist art is artifice.
Mannerist artists were less inclined to disguise the contrived nature of art production.
Ambiguous space, departures from expected conventions, and unique presentations of traditional themes are common features of Mannerist art.
The leading artist were Pontormo, Parmigianino, Bronzino, Paolo Veronese, Giovanni da Bologna, and Giulio Romano. A prime feature of the High Renaissance is rationality.
The High Renaissance artists concentrated on the observation of nature.
The masters in essence created a new profession, one having its own rights of expression, its own venerable character, and its own claims to recognition by the great.
The leading artist were Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, Bramante, and Andrea Palladio. Venetian Painting school had a great influence to subsequent painting. The most important masters were Giorgione and Titian. By the end of 16th century, Spain was the dominant power in Europe and ruled an empire greater in extent than any ever known, including vast territories in the New World. Spain defended and then promoted the interest of Catholic Church against the Protestant Reformation. Therefore, Philip II earned the title" Most Catholic King." During the 15th century and well into the 16th century, a Late Gothic style of architecture, the Plateresque, prevailed in Spain. Plateresque means silversmith, derived from the Spanish word platero. Indeed, the Plateresque style in architecture is characterized by the delicate execution of its ornamentation. As for painting, the Greek-born El Greco combined Byzantine style and Italian Mannerism to create the religious fervor of Catholic Spain. France in the early 16th century continued its effort to secure widespread recognition as a political power and cultural force. The French King were major patrons of art and architecture. The French King also took a strong position in the religious controversies of his day, and he fought against Holy Roman Empire and declared Protestant illegal in France. King Francis I was an admirer of Italian art and invited several esteemed Italian artists, including Leonardo da Vinci to his court. Appropriately, Mannerism appealed to them most. For example, the French architecture, such as Louvre Palace and Francis's Chateau, was an eclectic mix of Italian and and Northern European elements. Widespread dissatisfaction with the Church in Rome led to the Protestant Reformation, splitting Christendom in half, but the Catholic clergy in Germany still offered artists important commissions to adorn churches and other religious institutions. In fact, Protestant churches were rare, but art, especially prints, still played a role in Protestantism. The greatest printmaker of the Holy Germany Empire was Albrecht Dürer who became an international celebrity. Other German artists, such as Albrecht Altdorfer, achieved fame as landscape painters. Hans Holbein was a renowned portraitist who became court painter in England. The Netherlands was one of the most commercially advanced and prosperous countries in 16th century Europe. Much of Netherlandish art of this period provides a picture of contemporary life and values. The leading artist were Pieter Aertsen, Joachim Patinir, and Pieter Bruegel. Meanwhile, prominent female artist of the period include Caterina van Hemessen, who painted the first known Northern European self-portrait of a woman and Levina Teerlinc, who painted portraits for the English court. What's the relationship between Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation? Question: Widespread dissatisfaction with the Church in Rome led to the Protestant Reformation and establishment of Protestantism(as distinct from Catholicism), splitting Christendom in half. Protestant objected to the sale of indulgences and rejected most of the sacraments of the Catholic Church. They also condemned church decoration as a form of idolatry that distracted the faithful from communication with God. In response to Protestant Reformation, Catholic Church prompted the Counter-Reformation fight against Protestantism. Geographic Locations
& Art Works 1500-1600 Italy
south America David was carved by Michelangelo, between 1501 and 1504, in Italy. The importance of David as a civic symbol led the Florence Cathedral building committee to invite Michelangelo to work a great block of marble. Despite the traditional association of David with heroism, Michelangelo chose to represent the young biblical warrior not after victory, but turning his head to his left, sternly watchful of the approaching foe. Besides, the anatomy of David's body plays an important part in this prelude to action. To be honest, David is the classical nude in my mind. Technique,
& Art works 1500-1600 Chiaroscuro & sfumato
Sculpture(Gold & Marble)
Architecture materials Effects &
Political Events 1500-1600 High Renaissance
Female artists Venetian Painting Chinese Painting & Calligraphy 1500-1600 Fundamental to the art of Chinese painting and calligraphy is the belief that artistic expression is an immediate, apparently spontaneous act, although in reality it entails much thought and inner preparation. This way of thinking was nurtured and influenced by chan Buddhism. Snow over Rivers and Mountains was painted by Wang Shimin, who was a Chinese landscape painter during the Qing Dynasty, and the date of work was 1668. The material was ink on paper. From my perspective, I love his landscape because of the qi there. Qi, actually, is the most important spirit in the Chinese painting. Meanwhile, qi is also the highest level to approach to for all the painters. For example, qi contains rich knowledge, personal experience, thought and moral. Jean Clouet painted Francis I, dated between 1525 and 1530, the material was tempera and oil on wood. Clouet's portrait of Francis I in elegant garb reveals the artist's attention to details, especially the texture of Francis I's costume. Despite the careful detail, the portrait also exhibits an elegantly formalized quality, The disproportion between the king's small head and his broad body, swathed in heavy layers of fabric. As for the background, dark-red legend patterns seem to be interesting and meaningful. they are a liitle bloody, and I think red color represents the war between Catholic and Protestant. The Blind leading the Blind was painted by Pieter Bruegel in 1568, and the material was oil painting, The painting is what appears to be a literal depiction of a line of blind people following each other and stumbling into a ditch, as forecast in Matthew 15. Little is known of Bruegel religious views and his intent in conveying any moral sense or figurative meaning, if indeed he had any such with this painting, is difficult to interpret. Among all Brugel's works, I love this one most, because the composition is super dynastic, especially the diagonal direction of the blinds. Besides, the depiction of the landscape in the background is detailed and descriptive. In the 16th century, the Venetians developed a distinctive painting atyle. Artists in the maritime republic showed a special interest in recording the effect of Venice's soft-colored light on figures and landscape, and Venetian paintings of the High and Late Renaissance are easy to distinguish from contemporaneous works in Florence and Rome. Albercht Dürer engraved the famous printmaking work, titled Knight, Death, and the Devil, which was dated in 1513. In fact, The material is engraving. Dürer based the engraving on his observation of the real world, and he used dense hatching lines to distinguish the different tonal range of painting. For me, Albercht Dürer is a genius. I love his passionate and organized hatching lines and cross hatching lines, so I pay close attention to his engraving lines. The Colegio de San Gregorio was designed by an unknown artist, but the date was begun 1498. The material is marble. handsomely exemplifies the Plateresque manner. Actually, Plateresque prevailed in Spain during the 15th century and well into the 16th century, which was a Late Gothic style of architecture. The feature of Plateresque was the delicate execution of its ornaments. Great carved retables, like the German altarpiece that influenced them, appealed to church patrons and architects in Spain. On the entrance level, lacelike tracery reminiscent of Moorish design hems the flamboyant ogival arches, Machu Picchu was the estate of an Inka ruler. The Inka ruled a vast empire in Andean South America. Differently, Inka built stone steps, and their rope bridges crossed canyons high over impassable rivers. Large upright stones echo the contours of nearby sacred peaks. Precisely placed windows and door facilitated the astronomical observation. Because they established their community uphills, their houses or dwellings were erected among the mountain peaks. Meanwhile, the Inka mastered the difficulty problem of agriculture in a mountainous region with expert terracing and irrigation. Leonardo da Vinci painted Mona Lisa, dated between 1503 and 1505, and the material was oil on wood. Unquestionably, Leonardo's Mona Lisa is the world's most famous portrait, and the sitter's identify is still the subject of scholarly debate. Besides, Leonardo's portrait is a convincing representation of an individual with personal emotion and moral. The portrait of Mona Lisa reveals the artist's skills with chiaroscuro and atmospheric perspective. Meanwhile, Mona Lisa is a prime example of Leonardo's smoky sfumato. As for backgrounds, the landscape seems mysterious because the road receding to the distance seem to lead nowhere. Sistine Chapel Ceiling was painted by Michelangelo, started from 1508, and the medium was fresco. As you know, Michelangelo was a sculptor, but he proved that he was a genius, even in mural painting. When I view the picture of Sistine Chapel Ceiling, I focus on the figure after figure, each sharply outlined against the neutral tone of the architectural setting or the plain backgrounds of the panels. To me, the body is beautiful not only in its natural form but also in its spiritual and philosophical significance. All the figures are nude or simply draped without any ornamentation. Michelangelo painted with a sculptor's eye for how light and shadow communicate volume and surface. The Saltcellar of Francis I was made by Benvenuto Cellini, between 1540 and 1543, and the material was gold, enamel , and ebony. The subjects of this sculpture were Neptune and Tellus, or, as Cellini named them, the sea-the source of salt-and the land. As a Mannerist sculpture, the Saltcellar is extremely ornamental, luxurious and dramatic. For example, Cellini used much gold and enamel to decorate the figures, especially the turquoise-colored boat and sea. Michelangelo produced Pietà between 1498 and 1500, and the material was marble. Michelangelo transformed marble into flesh, hair, and fabric with
a sensitivity for texture that is without parallel. Michelangelo explained Mary's ageless beauty as an integral part of her purity and virginity. Particularly, the exaggerated proportions of Mary seems to be huge to hold her son, mourning the death of Christ. Giovanni da Bologna produced Abduction of the Sabine Woman, between 1579 and 1583, and the material was marble. Generally, this sculpture exemplifies Mannerist principles of figure composition. Giovanni had no interest in depicting any particular subject; his goal was to achieve a dynastic spiral figural composition. The preeminent feature is that viewers could walk around to see the sculpture, and the open space can pass through the mass of figures. Giovanni's figures do not break out of this spiral vortex but remains as if contained within a cylinder. The Comparison between High Renaissance and Mannerist Sculptures:
rational & Classical
Dynastic & Dramatic Fall of Man was engraved by Albercht Dürer in 1504, and the material was engraving. For all kinds of printmaking, lines are the most basic but significant element to depict the tints and shades. Dürer's lines with deep emotion clearly outlined the figures against the dark backgrounds, of a forest. The two idealized figures of Adam and Eve stand in poses reminiscent of specific classical status probably known to him through graphic representation. Besides, the animals populating the print are symbols. Château de Chambord was designed by Giuliano da Sangallo, begun 1519, and the material was unknown. French Renaissance Châteaus, which developed from Midieval castles, served as country houses for royalty. King Francis I's Château de Chambord reflects Italian Palazzo design but features a Gothic roof. For example, the Italian Renaissance palazzo served as the model for this matching of horizontal and vertical features, but above the third level the structure's lines break into a jumble of high dormers, chimneys, and lanterns that recall soaring Gothic silhouettes on the skyline. Venus of Urbino was painted by Titian in 1538, and the material is oil on canvas. Here, Titian established the compositional elements and the standard for paintings of reclining female nude. Titian conceived of all the figures in the painting with a strong desire of contrast. For example, the color of deep red and gem green is not as simple as contrast color, and they also play a role in the form. The usage of colors is very important for Titian in his painting. Titian used color not simply to record surface appearance but also to organize his placement of forms. School of Athens was painted by Raphael between 1509 and 1511, and the material was fresco. The group of figures appears to move clearly and easily, with eloquent poses and gestures that symbolize their doctrines and present an engaging variety of figural positions. Raphael's convincing depiction of a vast perspectival space on a two-dimensional surface was the consequence of the union of mathematics with pictorical science, here mastered completely. Besides, Raphael carefully considered his design for relating individuals and groups to one another and to the whole. The perspectival vanishing point falls on Plato's left hand, drawing attention to Timaeus. Venus, Cupid, and Time was painted by Bronzino in 1546, and the material was oil on wood, which displays all the chief features of Mannerist painting. Compositionally, Bronzino placed the figures around the front plane, and they almost entirely block the space. The contours are strong and sculptural, the surface of enamel smoothness. The proportion of all figures seem to be exaggerated, especially the legs of Cupid and Venus under the waist. In a word, the posture and gesture are extremely dynastic and dramatic. The masks lying behind Venus's feet are the symbols of Mannerism. Albrecht Altdorfer painted Battle of Issus in 1529, and the material was oil on wood. Some 16th-century artists in the HRE addressed historical and political issues in their works. Albrecht is the one who depicted the battle scene of the Great's defeat of King Darius III. The scene also reveals Altdorfer's love of landscape. From a bird-eye view, the clashing armies swarm in the foreground. In the distance, mountain peaks rise next to still bodies of water. The sky is not as usual as we can see, and sun and moon appear at the same time. So the landscape seems to be legend and mysterious. Burial of Court Orgaz was painted by El Greco in 1586, and the material was oil on canvas. In the painting, El Greco carefully distinguished the terrestrial and celestial spheres. The brilliant Heaven that opens above irradiates the earthly scene. Whereas he depicted the celestial, in his quite personal manner, with elongated undulating figures, fluttering draperies and swirling clouds. El Greco's deliberate change in style to distinguish between the two levels of reality gives the viewer an opportunity to see the artist's early and late manners in the same work- Byzantine and Mannerist styles. Sofonisba Anguissola painted Portrait of Artist's Sisters and Brother in 1555, and the material was oil on panel. Sofonisba placed the figures in an affectionate poses, not for official play but for private showing. Anguissola's use of relaxed and poses and expressions, her sympathetic personal presentation , and her grateful treatment of the forms did not escape the attention of her com-temporaries. She also focused on the identified and specific details, such as the nails of figures, the beads of hairdresser, and patterns of lace. O love the grass-green color of background, leading me to the relationships between her sisters and brother. My TIMELINE is about a wonderful journal of Art history from the Renaissance to the Modern Art. But all the views towards art works follow with my strong personal favor and art experience. Overall, my Timeline is very easy to read, because I categorize my main topics into three small groups: Geographical Location & Art Works, Technique, skills & Art Works, and Effects & Social-Political Events. As an obvious symbol, I also stick special marks to each group. For example, I use road signs to emphasize the different locations. Italy & Spain Flanders & Dutch Republic France & England Baroque Italian 17th century art and architecture embodied the renewed energy of the Catholic Counter- Reformation and communicated to the populace. In a world, Italian Baroque was to restore Catholicism predominance and centrality. In contrast to the precision and orderly rationality of Italian Renaissance classicism, Baroque art and architecture are dynamic, theatrical, and highly ornate. The leading artists are Borromini, Bernini, Caravaggio, etc.
Although the power of the Habsburg Kings of Spain declined over the course of the 17th century, the royal family, which was devoutly Catholic, continued to spend lavishly on art. Compared with drama and emotionalism of Italian Baroque, scenes of death and martyrdom were popular in Spain during the Counter- Reformation, such as José de Ribera and Francisco de Zurbarán. The most important master of Spain was Diego Velázquez, who painted with a wide variety of themes. 1600-1700 In the 17th century, Flanders remained Catholic and under Spanish control. Flemish Baroque art is more closely tied to the Baroque art of Italy than the rest of northern Europe. Peter Paul Rubens is definitely the most significant master of Flanders, and his work and influence are international in scope.
The Dutch Republic received official recognition of its independence from Spain in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Worldwide trade and banking brought prosperity to its predominantly Protestant citizenry, which largely rejected church art if favor of private commissions of portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, and still life. Rembrandt van Riji, the greatest Dutch artist of the age, treated a broad range of subjects, including religious themes and portraits. Rembrandt was also a master printmaker renowned for his etchings. Meanwhile, Jan Vermeer specialized in painting Dutch families in serenely opulent homes. The major art patron in 17th-century France was the Sun King, Louis XIV, who expanded the Louvre and built a gigantic palace-and-garden complex at Versailles featuring sumptuous furnishings and sweeping vistas. The architects were Charles Le Brun and Jules Hardouin- Mansart, who succeeded in marrying Italian Baroque and French classical style. The leading classical painter was Nicolas Poussin, who spent most of his life in Rome and championed the "great manner" of painting, which called for heroic or divine subjects and classical compositions with figures often modeled on ancient statues.
In 17th-century England, architecture was the most important art form. Lnigo Jones and Christopher Wren harmonized the architectural principles of Andrea Palladio with the Italian Baroque and French classical styles. Geographical Location
& Art Works Italy
England 1600-1700 Technique,
& Art Works 1600-1700 Tenebrism
Political Events 1600-1700
The Independence of Dutch Republic
Thirty Years' War
Middle-class Patronage: Landscape & Still Life By 1800, revolutions had overthrown the monarchy in France and achieved independence for the British colonies in America The 18th century also gave the birth to a revolution of a different kind-the Industrial Revolution, beginning in England and soon transformed the economics of continental Europe and North America and eventually the world. Against this backdrop of revolutionary change , social as well as political, economic and technological, came major transformations in the arts. The Enlightenment Neoclassicism Rococo Gianlorenzo Berinini made Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, between 1645 and 1652, and the material was marble. The sculpture is like a production of the mystical drama. Bernini depicted the saint in ecstasy, unmistakably a mingling of spiritual and physical passion. The re-creation of spiritual experiences in artworks would do much to increase devotion and piety. Thus, theatricality and sensory impact were useful vehicles for achieving Counter-Reformation goals. Besides, the visual differentiation in texture among the clouds, rough monk's cloth, smooth flesh, and feathery wings are expressed by Bernini's supreme technique and skills. Diego Velázquez painted Las Meninas in 1656, and the material was oil on canvas. He portrayed the realities of image on canvas, of mirror image, of optical image, and of the two painted images. It's very strange that the princess and her suite seem not to be the main subjects. Las Meninas is a pictorial summary and a commentary on the essential mystery of the visual art. Besides, Velázquez carefully observed and represented form and shadow. Instead of putting light abruptly beside darks, following Caravaggio, he allowed a great number of intermedia values of gray to come between the two extremes. Peter Paul Rubens painted Consequence of War, between 1638 and 1639, and the material was oil on canvas. The fluid articulation of human forms in this work and the energy that emanates from the chaotic scene reminiscent of Rubens's other paintings, such as Elevation of the Cross. The color is bright and the posture is dramatic. Although I don't like Rubens's figures, who are so robust, the atmosphere of the painting is so impressive to me. Besides, I love his soft strokes on the canvas to build the volume and distinguish the texture. Rembrandt van Rijn painted Night Watch in 1642, and the material was oil on canvas. Rembrandt used light in a masterful way, and the dramatic lighting certainly enchances the image. Still, the darkness of the painting is due more to the vanish the artist used, which darkened considerably over time, than to the subject depicted. Rembrandt organized the figures into the group. At the same time, he managed to record the specific details, such as loading, firing, and readying the weapons for reloading. Versailles Palace was designed by unknown architects, begun 1669, and the material was stone, marble and metal. The Palace of Versailles became the greatest architectural project of the age-a defining statement of French Baroque style and an undeniable symbol of Louis XIV's power and ambition. Every detail of the extremely rich decoration of the palace's interior received careful attention. Looking from the facade, hundred of mirrors set into the wall opposite the windows, alleviate the tunnel-like quality and extend the width of the room. As you know, the mirror is the source of illusion, was a favorite element of Baroque interior design. Sir Christopher Wren designed Saint Paul's Cathedral, between 1675 and 1710, the material was unknown. In Saint Paul's, he harmonized Palladian, French, and Italian Baroque architectural features. In the splendid skyline composition, two foreground towers act effectively as foils to the great Dome. Certainly, the influence of Borromini appears in the upper levels and lanterns of the towers. Saint Paul's Cathedral is London's majestic architecture. Caravaggio painted Calling of Saint Matthew, between 1597 and 1601, the material was oil on canvas. Overall, a piercing ray of light illuminates a world of darkness and bears a spiritual message to viewers. Christ, identifiable initially only by his distinct halos, enters from the right, A commanding gesture recalls the Lord's hand in Michelangelo's Creation of Adam. Caravaggio's figures are heroic with powerful bodies and clearly delineated contours in the Renaissance tradition, but the stark and dramatic contrast of light and dark , which shocked and then fascinated his contemporaries. Caravaggio's use of dark setting influenced European art, especially Spain and the Netherlands-tenebrism. Giovanni Battista Gaulli painted Triumph of the Name of Jesus, between 1676 and 1679, and the material was ceiling fresco with stucco figures. In conjunction with the theatricality of Italian Baroque architecture and sculpture, frescoes spanning church ceilings contributed to creating transcendent spiritual environments well suited to the Church's needs in Counter-Reformation Rome. In the center of fresco painting, it offers the faithful a stunning glimpse of Heaven. In contrast, sinners experience a violent descent back to Earth. Besides, the painter glazed the gilded architecture to suggest shadows, thereby enhancing the scene's illusionistic quality. Rembrandt van Rijn etched Christ with the Sick around Him in 1649, and the material was etching. Rembrandt's virtuosity extended to the graphic media-etching. Afterward, many artists took up etching because etching allowed greater freedom than engraving in drawing and design. The tonal range of the print is remarkable. At the right, the figures near the city gate are in deep shadow. At the left, the figures, some rendered almost exclusively in outline, are in bright light. As for the light, unseen source of light comes from the right and casts the shadow ofthe praying man's arms and heads. The trip of Rembrandt's self-obsessed self-portraits Though Dürer is credited for being the first artist to consistently create self-portraits, Rembrandt is given credit for being the first artist to intensely study the self through art. During his life time, 1606-1669, Rembrandt sketched his own face thousands of times. He created a legacy of 60 self-portraits that depict his history, an autobiographical story that chronicles his turbulent life. From rags to riches, through marriages and mistresses, from youth to old age, we can witness the changing face of Rembrandt. self-portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open, 1630 Self-portrait leaning on a Sill, 1639 A Young Rembrandt, 1628 Self-portrait with two circles,1660 Jan Vermeer painted The Milkmaid, between 1657 and 1678, the media was oil on canvas. Vermeer created his most illusionistic image in The Milkmaid. To modern viewers, the painting may seem almost photographic in its realism. However, the composition was very carefully designed. This is evident from several revisions made in the course of execution, and from the finished work's subtle relationships of light and shadow, color, contours, and shapes. Beside, the tiny strokes extremely express different textures of wall, rough clothes, soft bread, etc.. As for light, I love it so much because I can tell the light passes through windows is from morning time. Gianlorenzo Bernini designed Baldacchino of Saint Peter's, between 1624 and 1633, the media was gilded bronze. The canopy-like structure stands 100 feet high, and the baldacchino serves both functional and symbolic purposes. At the top of columns, four colossal angels stand guard at the upper corners of the canopy. The baldacchino also features numerous bees, symbols of Urban VIII's family, the Barberini. In a word, the structure effectively gives visual form to the triumph of Christianity and the papal claim to doctrinal supremacy. Carlo Maderno designed Saint Peter's between 1606 and 1612, and the media was unknown. When viewed at close range, the dome barely emerges above the facade's soaring frontal plane. Seen from farther back, it appears to have no drum. Visitors must move back quite a distance from the front to see the dome and drum together. Because Maderno's plan for Saint Peter's departed form the central plan designed by Michelangelo, today, viewers can appreciate the effect Michelangelo intended only by observing the church from the back. Gerrit van Honthorst painted Supper Party in 1620, and the media was oil on canvas. In this painting, Honthorst presented an informal gathering of nonidealized human figures. Obviously, Caravaggio influenced him about setting the light. In Supper Party, Honthorst placed a hidden light source and used it as a pretext to work with dramatic and starkly contrasting dark and light effects. Peter Paul Rubens painted Arrival of Marie de' Medici at Marseilles between 1622 and 1625, and the media was oil on canvas. Among Ruben's royal patrons was Marie de' Medici, a menber of the famous Florentine house and widow of Henry IV, the first Bourbon king of France. Rubens, working with amazing creative energy, produced such a huge historical allegorical picture designed to hang in the queen's palace.Rubens enriched the surfaces with a decorative splendor than pulls the whole composition together. Diego Velázquez painted Surrender of Breda between 1634 and 1635, the media was oil on canvas. The huge canvas was one of 10 paintings celebrating recent Spanish military successes around the globe. Velázquez depicted the victorious Spanish troops, organized and well armed, on the right side of the painting. In sharp contrast, the defeated Dutch on the left appear bedraggled and disorganized. In the center foreground, the mayor of Bred, Justinus of Nassau, hands the city's keys to the Spanish general-although no encounter of this kind ever occured. Louis le Nain painted Family of Country People in 1640, and the media was oil on canvas. Family of Country People reflected the thinking of 17th-century French social theorists who celebrated the natural virtue of peasants who worked the soil. Le Nain's painting expresses the grave dignity of one peasant family made stoic and resigned by hardship. The peasants' lot, never say, was miserable during the Thirty Years' War. This family, however, is pious, docile, and calm. Because Le Nain depicted peasants as dignity and subservient despite their harsh living conditions, some scholars have suggested he intended to please wealthy urban patrons with these paingtings. Claude lorrain painted Landscape with Cattle and Peasants in 1629, and the media was oil on canvas. In the painting, the figures in the right foreground chat in animated fashion. In the left foreground, cattle relax contently. Claude used atmospheric and linear perspective to transform the rustic Roman countryside filled with peasants and animals into an idealized classical landscape bathed in sunlight in infinite space. Besides, Claude's formalizing of nature with balanced groups of architectural masses, screens of trees, and sheets of water followed the great tradition of classical landscape. Rachel Ruysch painted Flower Still Life after 1700, and the media was oil on canvas. Flower paintings were very popular in the Dutch Republic. Rachel achieved international renown for her lush paintings of floral arrangements, noted also for their careful compositions. In the image, lavish floral arrangement is so full that many of the blossoms seem to be spilling out of the vase. Ruysch carefully constructed her paintings. For example, she positioned the flowers to create a digonal that runs from the lower left of the painting to the upper right corner. How to use my TIMELINE? Europe & America 1700-1800 ,1700-1800 In the early 18th century, the centralized and grandiose palace-based culture of Baroque France gave way to the much more imitate Rococo culture based in the town houses of Paris. There, aristocrats and intellectuals gathered for witty conversation in salons featuring delicate colors, sinuous lines, gilded mirrors, elegant furniture, and small paintings and sculptures. The leading Rococo painters were Antoine Watteau, Francois Boucher and Jean-Honoré. Meanwhile, in Italy, Giambattista Tiepolo adapted the Rococo maner to huge ceiling frescoes in the Baroque tradition. A major factor of revolutions was the Enlightenment, a new way of thinking critically about the world independently of religion and tradition. The Enlightenment promoted scientific questioning of all assertions and embraced the doctrine of progress. The Enlightenment also made knowledge of ancient Rome imperative for the cultured elite, and Europeans and Americans in large numbers undertook a Grand Tour of Italy. Rejecting the idea of progress, Rousseau, argued for a return to natural values and exalted the simple, honest life of peasants. The leading painters of Naturalism were Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Jean-Baptiste Greuze and Thomas Gainsborough. The Enlightenment revival of interest in Greece and Rome, which spurred systematic excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii, also gave rise in the late 18th century to the artistic movement known as Neoclassicism, which incorporated the subjects and styles of ancient art. The leading painters were Angelica Kauffmann and Jacques- Louis David who both favored ancient Roman themes. The Neoclassicism style also became the rage in interior decoration, fashion and architecture. The leading architects who adapted the Neoclassicism style were Jacques-Germain Sofflot and Thomas Jefferson. Geographical Location
& Art Works Italy
The United States 1700-1800 Technique,
& Art Works Iron Bridge
Dramatic candlelit & moonlit scenes
Architectural building materials 1700-1800 Effects
Political Events Historical Events
Grand Tour of Italy
Neoclassicism 1700-1800 Apotheosis of the Pisani Family was painted by Giambattista Tiepolo, between 1761 and 1762, and the medium was fresco. Tiepolo favored the bight, cheerful colors and relaxed compositions of Rococo easel paintings. Apotheosis of the Pisani Family, a ceiling fresco in the Villa Pisani at Stra in northern Italy, shows airy figures fluttering through vast sunlit skies and fleecy clouds, their forms casting dark accents against the brilliant light of high noon. Hall of Mirrors was designed by Francois de Cuvilliés in the early 18th century. Hall of Mirrors, a silver-and-blue ensemble of architecture, stucco relief, silvered bronze mirrors, and crystal that represents the Rococo style at its zenith. The hall dazzles the eye with myriad scintillating motifs, forms, and figurations the designer borrowed from the full Rococo ornamental repertoire. Silvery light, reflected and amplified by windows and mirrors, bathes the room and creates shapes and contours that weave rhythmically around the upper walls and the ceiling coves. Pilgrimage to Cythera was painted by Antoine Watteau in 1717, and the medium was oil on canvas. Watteau was largely responsible for creating a specific type of Rococo painting, called a fête galante painting. These works depicted the outdoor entertainment or amusement of French high society. The elegant figures move gracefully from the protective shade of a woodland park filled with amorous cupids. Watteau's figures poses blend elegance and sweetness. Francois Boucher painted Cupid a Captive in 1754, and the medium was oil on canvas. Cupid a Captive presents a rosy pyramid of infant and female flesh set off against a cool, leafy background, with fluttering draperies both hiding and revealing the nudity of the figures. Boucher used the full range of Italian and French Baroque devices-the dynamic play of crisscrossing diagonals, curvilinear forms, and slanting recessions. Benjamin West painted Death of General Wolfe in 1771, and the medium was oil on canvas. In portraying a contemporary historical subject, he put his characters in contemporary costume. However, West blended this realism of detail with the grand tradition of history painting by arranging his figures in a complex, theatrically ordered composition. His innovative combination of the conventions of traditional heroic painting with a look of modern realism was so effective that it won viewers' heart in his own day and continued to influence history painting well into the 19th century. Iron bridge was designed by Abraham Darby III and Thomas F. Pritchard, between 1776 and 1779, and the medium was iron. The style of the graceful center are echoes the grand arches of Roman aqueducts. At the same time, the exposed structure of the bridge's cast-iron parts prefigured the skeletal use of iron and steel in the 19th century. Visible structural armatures became expressive factors in the design of buildings such as Crystal Palace in England and the Eiffel Tower in France. The interior of Pilgrimage of Church of Vierzehnheiligen was designed by Balthasar Neumann, between 1743 and 1772, and the medium was unknown. The interior exhibits a vivacious play of architectural fantasy that retains the dynastic energy of Italian Baroque architecture but not its drama. Numerous large windows in the richly decorated but continuous walls of Vierzehnheiligen flood the interior with an even, bright and cheerful light. The feeling is one of lightness and delicacy. Joseph Wright painted A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery, between 1763 and 1765, and the medium was oil on canvas. Light from the lamp pours forth from it front of the boy silhouetted in the foreground to create dramatic light and shadows that heighten the drama of the scene. In the Wright's painting, the artist visually reinforced the fascination with the orrery by composing his image in a circular fashion, echoing the device's orbital design. Clodion produced the Satyr Crowning a Bacchante in 1770, and the medium was terracotta. the sculpture depicted two mythological followers of Bacchus, the Roman God of Wine. The languorous bacchante being crowned by the satyr with a floral wreath is reminiscent of the nude female personification in Bevenuto Cellini's Saltcellar of Francis I. The erotic playfulness of Boucher's and Fragonard's painting is also evident in Clodion's sculpture. He captured the sensual exhilaration of the Rococo style in diminutive scale and inexpensive terracotta. Chiswick House was designed by Richard Boyle and William Kent, begun 1725, and the medium was unknown. The exterior design provided a clear alternative to the colorful splendors of Versailles. In its simple symmetry, unadorned planes, right angles, and precise proportions, Chiswick looks very classical and rational. But the Palladian-style villa's setting within informal gardens, where a charming irregularity of layout and freely growing uncropped foliage dominate the scene. Horatio Greenough produced George Washington in 1840, and the medium was marble. Greenough portrayed Washington as seminude and enthroned, like the famous lost statue of Zeus thet Phidias made for the god's temple at Olympia in ancient Greece. The statue, which epitomizes the Neoclassical style, did not, however, win favor either the Congress that commissioned it or the public. William Hogarth painted Breakfast Scene from Marriage à la Mode in 1745, and the medium was oil on canvas. In Breakfast Scene, as in all his work, Hogarth proceed as a novelist might, elaborating on his subject with carefully chosen detail, whose delivery heightens the comedy. The popularity of these prints speaks not only to the appeal of their subjects but also to the democratization of knowledge and culture the Enlightenment fostered and to the exploitation of new printing technoligies. John Singleton Copley painted Portrait of Paul Revere, between 1768 and 1770, and the medium was oil on canvas. In the picture, he is working at his profession of silversmithing. The setting is plain, the lighting clear and revealing. Copley gave special prominence to Revere's eyes by flecting intense reddish ligth onto the darkened side of his face and hands. The informality and the sense of the moment link this painting to contemporaneous English and European portraits. Antonio Canaletto painted Riva degli Schiavoni between 1735 and 1740, and the medium was oil on canvas. With its cloud-studded sky, picturesque water traffic, and well-known Venetian landmarks, Canaletto painted in scrupulous perspective and minute detail. Canaletto usually made drawings on location to take back to his studio and use as sources for paintings. To help make the on-site drawings true to life, he often used a camera obscura. Canaletto's paintings give the impression of capturing every detail, with no omissions. Village Bride was painted by Jean-Baptiste Greuze in 1761, and the medium was oil on canvas. the picture's story is simple-the happy climax of a rural romance. The painting's moral is just as clear-happiness is the reward of natural virtue. Greuze produced this work at a time when the audience for art was expanding. The strict social hierarchy that provided the foundation for Rocco art and patronage gave way to a bourgeois economic and social system. Death of Marat was painted by Jacques-Louis David in 1793, and the medium was oil on canvas. Rather than continuing to create artworks focused on scenes from antiquity, David began to portray acenes from the French Revolution. David presented the scene with directness and clarity. The cold neutral background space above Marat slumped in the tub produced a chilling oppressiveness. What do you think of Egon Schiller's female figures? Are they charming? Are they sexy? Are they sensitive?
Definitely, every single artist must require a "Muse" to inspire him or her, and a "Muse" here is similar to a trigger to stimulate a vigorous response to their inspiration. In my opinion, female models are different from pictures, as they are a big "reference" for artists during the process of composition. Throughout various art works, I find out that female figures take an important role in composing the picturesque scene. Meanwhile, these female models are also meaningful to artists and their master pieces. Take a deep breath, guys! Our tour is beginning! Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci, between 1503 and 1505, and the medium was Oil on canvas. Unexpectedly, the size of Mona Lisa was 26¼×19. Born in the small town of Vinci, near Florence, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) trained in the studio of Andrea del Verrocchio. Definitely, Leonardo was a marvelous “Renaissance man”, but art was only one aspect of his innumerable interests. He explored botany, geology, geography, zoology and anatomy, etc. with sketches. Actually, these studies informed his art and enhanced an understanding of his artistic production. From my perspective, Mona Lisa is Leonardo’s great ambition in his paintings. Despite the uncertainty of her identification, the mysterious smile of Mona Lisa is so charming and memorable for viewers of the entire world. Indeed, Mona Lisa is not only an individual portrait but also an icon of High Renaissance. With a gloomy burnt-yellow tone, she neither wears jewelry or diamond nor holds any attribute related to wealth; however, she looks so radiant with profound holiness. Leonardo used a pyramid design to place the woman simply and calmly in the main space of the painting, and her folded hands form the front corner of the pyramid. Her breast, neck and face glow in the same light. The armrest of the chair functions as a dividing boundary between Mona Lisa and the viewer. The woman sits elegantly upright with her arms folded, gazing at the viewer with a gentle, mysterious smile. Besides, the far-reaching landscape behind Mona Lisa is asymmetrical, which I mean, the horizontal lines of the left side and right side are not parallel. Leonardo used chiaroscuro, smoky sfumato and atmospheric perspective to depict the portrait of Mona Lisa. Generally, Leonardo employed tints and shades to strengthen her volume; meanwhile, the gloomy light also gives the variety of living surfaces an underlying geometrical sphere. As for smoky sfumato, it is a painting skill of the subtle adjustment of light and blurring of precise planes. Moreover, Leonardo was a master using atmospheric perspective to indicate the distance between Mona Lisa and the Landscape. When I watch this painting, I can tell air really exists between all the subjects. My tour theme is artists’ female figures, so I immediately think of Mona Lisa first, not only because of Mona Lisa’s famous fame but also for the significance of Mona Lisa’s featured icon. Although Mona Lisa is does not have an extremely beautiful look, she is charming and elegant because of her untold temperament. Even though she does not wear any jewelries or diamonds, she looks so radiant because of her divine and mysterious smile. No matter how time changes, the fascination of Mona Lisa is beyond our imagination. First of all, I summarize 5 various time spans of important art trends, and I also draw a "Tree" to indicate the main topics of my timeline. Secondly, I entitle each core theme with detailed narratives. Thirdly, I adhere to many pictures to my timeline with brief explanation. Finally, I am creative to illustrate my choices, exploring different kinds of composition and some interesting topics. For my timeline, I focus on specific and significant art trends, as all the masterpieces are so stunning to shift their appearance day to day. Meanwhile, Timeline is a great opportunity to go back to the glory days and immerse myself in enjoying hundreds of thousands of masterworks. Grande Odalisque was painted by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres in 1814, and the material was oil on canvas. The size of Grande Odalisque was 211×54. Ingres arrived at David’s studio in the late 1790s. Actually, Ingres’s study there was to be short-lived, however, as he soon broke with David on matters of style. This difference of opinion involved Ingres’s embrace of what he believed to be a truer and purer Greek style than David employed. This art work is a strange mixture of artistic styles—the combination of precise classical form and Romantic themes—promoted confusion and mystery. Ingres depicted an authentic in tremendous details, such as the peacock feather fan, the patterns of draperies, and her head dresser. More interestingly, Ingres painted the nude female with subtle tints. He merely emphasized the shadows of her neck, breasts, and hips to strengthen his figure’s volume. Simply, Ingres’s subject was a nude female, but he carefully arranged narrative and detail into expressing his female figure. Ingres’s subject, the reclining nude figure, followed the tradition of Titian. She reclined in the foreground, much like a piece of low-relief sculpture. She looked back and gazed at viewers directly. To be honest, her body was extremely slender, especially her right arm, her hips and her legs. The bed she lay on was elaborately ornate. I couldn’t help asking who she was. She looks so calm and beautiful, facing the painter and viewers. As for technique, Ingres employed typically Neoclassic painting skills, which means viewers almost cannot tell the clear strokes on canvas. Meanwhile, he used softened spectrum based on a delicate interplay of tones. The hue of this painting is cold cobalt-blue, which is compared with its contrast color—warm soft orange of flesh. I chose this painting because of Ingres’s female beauty. The artist adopted flat and linear forms approximating those found in Greek vast painting. The figure’s languid pose, small head and elongated limbs implied that he definitely exaggerated the figure’s proportion. However, this kind of exaggerative proportion conveyed a mysterious beauty of the female figure. She was a Muse, mixed the quiet atmosphere of the Neoclassicism with the modern idea of the Romanticism. Edgar Degas painted The Rehearsal in 1874, and the medium was oil on canvas. The size of this painting was 1 11×29. Degas was born in Paris, France, in 1834, and his family was moderately wealthy. He was regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism, although he rejected the term. He preferred to call himself a realist. He was especially famous and identified with the subject of dance. As an Impressionist painter, Degas not only expressed the change of light and color in the nature, but he also depicted more formal leisure activities. His great observational power took in the formalized movement of classical ballet, one of his favorite subjects. Degas’s female figures were slender, graceful and expressive. In the painting of The Rehearsal, she portrayed a group of ballet dancers practicing in the bright room with huge French windows. There was a spiral staircase on the left side; there were three dancers preparing for practice, and one of them was a cut-off figure. In the background, a group of ballet dancers behind the stair were dancing, and an aged man was standing by the wall and windows. Differently, the figures were not at the center of a classically balanced composition. Instead, Degas arranged them in a seemingly random manner. For the techniques, Degas used several devices —composition structures to bring the observer into the pictorial space. The frame cuts off the spiral stair, the windows in the background and the group of figures in the right foreground. The prominent diagonals of the wall and floorboards carry the viewer into and along the directional lines of dancers. The Rehearsal indicates the artist’s interest in reproducing single moment. Meanwhile, Degas usually captured the postures of dancing female figures, which means he had to seize figures’ fast movements quickly. Before Degas, almost all the artists preferred to depict a female model without any movement and expressed the quiet beauty of women. So Degas was marvelous and talented. The postures of Degas’s female figures were elegantly dynamic, and Degas surely conveyed another aspect of beauty of women. They were beautiful and vigorous, a new appearance of modern women. Woman with Dead Child was painted by Käthe Kollwitz in 1903, and the medium was etching and soft-ground etching, overprinted lithographically with a gold tone plate. The size of this etching work was 1 4×17. Käthe Kollwitz (1880-1916) was a German painter, printmaker and sculptor whose work offered an eloquent and expressive image of human conditions and the tragedy of war. When she was twelve, she began drawing and copying plaster casts. Then she suffered from anxiety due to the death of her siblings in the war. I was deeply touched by a mother tightly holding her dead child. Although Käthe Kollwitz derived the theme from the Christian Pietà, she transformed it into a universal statement of maternal loss and grief. Woman with Dead Child conveyed her passionate protest and satirical bitterness for the tragic situations of the poor. Kollwitz’s subject was a poor mother and her dead child. It was simple but impressive. I believe that she also wanted to tell the viewer a sad story about a mother losing her little child. In the very foreground, an aged and bony mother crouched, and she had her arms folded across her chest, tightly embracing her pale and rigid dead child. The dead child was so quiet that his mother could not accept the death of her child. She preferred her child sleeping in her arms. I cannot see the whole face of the mother, but I can tell her grieved expression on her face and struggling emotional fluctuation. She lost her child. For the technique, Kollwitz used etching and lithograph skills to emphasize the strength of lines. As for printmaking works, lines are very significant to convey the strong feeling to the viewer. She employed sharp and straight lines to highlight the power of outlines. She also used dark hatching lines to increase the intensity of emotion. Overall, Kollwitz didn’t apply tremendous lines, but each line had its specific function. No matter Botticelli’s Venus or Leonardo’s Mona Lisa, etc. each female figure is beautiful and graceful. I think no one painted a female figure like Kollwitz’s mother. Generally speaking, the mother with her dead child was not beautiful at all. She was an aged woman, who had suffered the vicissitudes of life. She looked so bony. She looked so fragile. She buried her head in her arms. Her posture seemed so exaggerated that she looked like a “monster”. I love Kollwitz’s female figure, because she was strongly impressive. I was touched deeply by her grief. Mother with Dead Child is an important breakthrough for female portraits. The Two Fridas was painted by Frida Kahlo in 1939, and the medium was oil on canvas. The size of this painting was 5 7×57. Born to a Mexican mother and German father, the painter Frida Kahlo (1907-1954), who married Diego Rivera, used the details of her life as powerful symbols for the psychological pain of human existence. She suffered a car accident and disabled her leg. She loved her husband, Diego Rivera, but he had affairs with various women. Kahlo began painting seriously as a young student, and her subject was about her tragic life for survival against illness and stormy personal relationships. I think this painting is great because of her direct emotional expression. Whenever I look at this painting, I feel I am sitting together with Frida face to face. I love her plain but expressive strokes. Her portrait is a little clumsy but unique. Frida is like a surgeon, dissecting her body, her heart and her personal life. She is a good storyteller, seizing the viewer’s attention, and she is also a talented painter, expressing what she wants to say. Two Fridas is one of the few large-scale canvases Kahlo ever produced. The twin figures sit side by side on a low and green bench in a barren landscape under a stormy sky. The sky is cold blue and cloudy, and a stormy sky may mean her unhappy marriage. The figures suggest different sides of the artist’s personality, inextricably linked by the clasped hands and by the thin artery that stretches between them, joining their exposed hearts. The artery ends on one side in surgical forceps and on the other in a miniature portrait of her husband as a child. As for techniques, Frida was a plain painter to depict self-portrait with relatively rough brush strokes, compared with the High Renaissance and Neoclassicism. She never intended to conceal brush strokes; on the contrary, those brush strokes were an important part to express her true feelings. The colors she used were pure and bright, such as turquoise, orange-yellow, earth red, and burnt- orange. I believe that The Two Fridas is a large painting to depict her deep hurt as losing her husband. In my heart, she was a heroine. She painted her thought, her feeling, her dream, her hurt, and her life. She was not only a talented painter, but also a female model with stories. She was distinctive, announcing loudly that Frida was an individual by her paintings. No one could replace her. She was brave to pursue her love and face her husband’s betray. She was also painful to admit that she lost her lover. I call her a modern woman, because she was an independent thinker. Her self-portrait is an icon with special meaning seen from everywhere. As Emperor of the French form 1804 to 1815, Napoleon embraced the Neoclassical style in order to associate his regime with the empire of ancient Rome. After a disastrous invasion of Russia, Napoleon went into exile. In many ways, the more significant changes during the first half of the 19th century were technological and economic. The Industrial Revolution caused a population boom in European cities, and railroads spread to many parts of the Continent, facilitating the transportation of both goods and people. During this period, the arts also underwent important changes. The century opened with Neoclassicism still supreme, but by 1870 Romanticism and Realism in turn had captured the imagination of artists and public alike. Meanwhile, new construction techniques had a major impact on architectural design, and the invention of photography revolutionized picture making of all kinds. 1870-1900 Because of Industrialization, urbanization, and increased economic and political interaction worldwide, the third of quarter of the 19th century as the second Industrial Revolution. One of the most significant consequences of Industrialization was urbanization. The number and size of Western cities grew dramatically during the later 19th century, largely due to migration from rural regions. With the widely available work opportunities in the cities, more and more working class was living in the Western cities. At the same time, the combination of extensive technological changes and increased exposure to other countries, coupled with the rapidity of these changes, led to an acute sense in Western cultures of the world's impermanence. Due to Darwin's ideas and Marx's emphasis. these social changes fostered a new and multifaceted artistic approach that historians call Modernism. 1800-1870 Modern Art From Europe to America Geographic Locations
& Art Works France
& Art Works Romanticism
Political Events Napoleon Time
Art Reflects Governments
The Poor Life
Art and Crafts Movements
Grande Odalisque was painted by Jean-Auguste- Dominique Ingres in 1814, and the medium was oil on canvas. In Ingres's subject, the reclining nude figure, followed the tradition of Giorgione and Titian. The work also shows Ingres's admiration for Raphael in his borrowing of that master's type of female head. The figure's languid pose, small head and elongated limbs, and the generally cool color scheme reveal his debt to Parmigianino and the Italian Mannerists. By the figure to an odalisque, the artist made a strong concession. Francisco Goya produced The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters in 1798, and the medium was etching and aquatint. In the print, Goya depicted himself asleep while threatening creatures converge on him, revealing his commitment to the Romantic spirit-- the unleashing of imagination, emotions, and nightmares. Seemingly poised to attack the artist are owls and bats. The viewer might read this as a espousal of Enlightement ideals. Joseph Mallord William Turner painted The Salve Ship in 1840, and the medium was oil on canvas. The incident involved the captain of a slave ship who, on realizing that his insurance company would reimburse him only for slaves lost at sea but not for those who died en route, ordered the sick and dying slaves thrown overboard. Appropriately, Turner's frenzied emotional depiction of this act matches its barbaric nature. Three Women in a Village Church was painted by Wilhelm Leibl between 1878 and 1882, and the medium was oil on canvas. This painting demonstrates the German artist's commitment to Realist principles and his mastery of the quaint and quiet details of country life. Three Women is a moving expression of the German artist's compassionate view of his subjects. Henry Ossawa Tanner painted The Thankful Poor in 1894, and the medium was oil on canvas. Henry was a typically Realist painter to depict the lives of ordinary people. The mood in The Thankful Poor is one of quiet devotion not far removed from the Realism of Millet. Tanner painted the grandfather, grandchild, and main objects in the room with the greatest details, while everything else dissolves into loose strokes of color and light. Gustav Klimt painted The Kiss between 1907 and 1908, and the medium was oil on canvas. In this opulent Viennese finde-siecle painting, Gustav Klimt revealed only a small segment of each lover's body. The rest of his painting dissolves into shimmering, extravagant flat patterning.
This patterning has clear ties to Art Nouveau and to the Arts and Crafts movement and also evokes the conflict between two- and three-dimensionality. Edvard Munch painted The Scream in 1893, and the medium was oil on canvas. Munch felt deeply the pain of human life. His belief that humans were powerless before the great natural forces of death and love and the emotions associated with them-jealousy , loneliness, fear, desire, despair-became the theme of most of his art. The Scream evokes a visceral, emotional response from the viewer because of the painter's dramatic presentation. Liberty Leading the People was painted by Eugene Delacroix in 1830, and the medium was oil on canvas. Delacroix captured the passion and energy of the 1830 revolution in France in his painting Liberty Leading the People. Based on the Parisian uprising against Charles X at the end of July 1830, it depicted the allegorical personification of liberty defiantly thrusting forth the republic's tricolor banner as she urges the masses to fight on. In the background, the towers of Notre-Dame rise through the smoke and haze. The painter's inclusion of this recognizable Parisian Landmark announces the specificity of locale and event. The Gleaners was painted by Jean-Francois Millet in 1857, and the medium was oil on canvas. He depicted three peasants women preforming the backbreaking task of gleaning the last wheat scraps. These impoverished women were members of the lowest level of peasant society. Landowning nobles traditionally permitted them to glean to pick up the remainders left in the field after the harvest. Daumier produced Rue Transnonain in 1834, and the medium was lithograph. Daumier produced lithographs that allowed him to create an unprecedented number of prints, thereby reaching a broader audience. In addition to producing individual lithograph for sale, Daumier also contributed satirical lithographs to the widely read, liberal French Republican journal Caricature. In these prints, he mercilessly lampooned the foibles and misbehavior of politicians, lawyers, doctors, and the rich in general. Hawes and Southworth made the photo of Early Operation under Ether, Massachusetts General Hospital in 1847, and the medium was Daguerreotype. This photo, taken from the gallery of a hospital operating room, put the viewer in the position of medical students looking down on a lecture-demonstration typical throughout the 19th century. Frederic Edwin Church painted Twilight in the Wildness in 1860s, and the medium was oil on canvas. During his life he traveled to south America, Mexico, Europe, the Middle East, and Labrador. Church's paintings are firmly in the idiom of the Romantic sublime, yet they also reveal contradictions and conflicts in the constructed mythology of American providence and character. Twilight in the Wildness presents a panoramic view of the sun setting over the majestic spectacle of nature. John Everett Millais painted Ophelia in 1852, and the medium was oil on canvas. To make he pathos of the scene visible, Millais became a faithful and feeling witnes of tis very detail, reconstructing it with a lyricism worthy of the original poetry. Although the scene is fictitious, Millais worked diligently to present it with unswerving fidelity to visual fact. He painted the background on-site at a spot along the Hogsmill River in Surrey. For the figure of Ophelia, Millais had a friend lie in a heated bathtub fully of water for hours ata stretch. Henry Labrouste designed the reading room of the Bibliotheque Saint-Genevieve between 1843 and 1850, and the medium was cast-iron. This building is an interesting mix of Renaissance revival style and modern cast-iron construction.
Its two-story facade with arched windows recalls Renaissance palazzo designs, but Labrouste exposed the structure's metal skeleton on the interior. The lower story of the libery housed the book stacks. Claude Monet painted Impression Sunrise in 1872, and the medium was oil on canvas. This is apparent in Impression: Sunrise, in which Monet made no attempt to disguise the brush strokes or blend the pigment to create smooth tonal gradations and an optically accurate scene. This concern with acknowledging the paint and the canvas surface continued the modernist exploration that the Realists began. Vincent Van Gogh painted Starry Night in 1889, and the medium was oil on canvas. In Starry Night, the artist did not represent the sky's appearance. Rather, he communicated his feelings about the electrifying vastness of the universe, filled with whirling and exploding stars and galaxies of stars, the earth and humanity huddling beneath it. The church nestled in the center of the village is perhaps van Gogh 's attempt to express his conflicted view about religion. Henri Rousseau painted Sleeping Gypsy in 1897, and the medium was oil on canvas. In Sleeping Gypsy, the recumbent figure occupies a desert world, silent and secret, and dreams beneath a pale, perfectly round moon. In the foreground, a lion that resembles a stuffed, but somehow menacing, animal doll sniffs at the gypsy. A critical encounter impends-an encounter of the type that recalls the uneasiness of a person's vulnerable subconscious self during sleep. Jacques-Louis David painted Coronation of Napoleon between 1805 and 1808, and the medium was oil on canvas. David faithfully portrayed those in attendance. Despite the artist's apparent fidelity to historical fact, preliminary studies and drawings reveal that David made changes at Napoleon's request. For example, Napoleon insisted that the painter depict the pope with his hand raised in blessing. Raft of the Medusa was painted by Theodore Gericault between 1818 and 1819, and the medium was oil on canvas. In this depiction of a historical event, the artist abandoned the idealism of Neoclassicism and instead invoked the theatricality of Romanticism. The painting's subject is a shipwreck that occurred in 1816 off the African coast. The French frigate Medusa ran aground on a reef due to the incompetence of the captain,a political appointee. Finally, a ship spotted the raft and rescued the survivors. Gustave Courbet painted The Stone Breaker in 1849, and the medium was oil on canvas. This painting capturing on canvas in a straight manner two men- on about 70, the other quite young- in the act of breaking stones, traditionally the lot of the lowest in French society. By juxtaposing youth and age, Courbet suggested that those born to poverty remain poor their entire lives. The artist neither romanticized nor idealized the men's work but depicted their thankless toil with directness and accuracy. Caspar David painted Abbey in the Oak Forest in 1810, and the medium was oil on canvas. Under a winter sky, through the leafless oaks of a snow-covered cemetery, a funeral procession bears a coffin into the ruins of a Gothic church that David based on the remains of Abbey. The emblems of death are everywhere-the season's desolation, the leaning crosses and tombstones, the black of mourning. Daumier painted Third-Class Carriage in 1862, and the medium was oil on canvas. The riders are poor and can afford only third-class tickets. While first-and second-class carriages had closed compartments, third-class passengers were crammed together on hard benches that filled the carriage. He tried to achieve the real by isolating a random collection of the unrehearsed details of human existence from the continuum of ordinary people. William Morris designed Green Dining Room in 1867, and the medium was unknown. In 1876, Morris received the commission to decorate the Green Dining Room at London's South Kensington Museum, the center of public art education and home of decorative art collections. The range of room features-windows, lights, and wain-scoting- that Morris decorated to create this unified, beautiful, and functional environment is all-encompassing. Nothing escaped his eyes, Morris's design for this room also reveals the penchant of Arts and Crafts designers for intricate patterning.