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Sergei Winogradsky

Contribution to Microbiology

Wesley Moore

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Sergei Winogradsky

The Early Years photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr Microbiologist / Ecologist Born: September 1, 1856
Died: February 25, 1953

Lifespan = 97 years Sergei Winogradsky Birthplace = Kiev, Russia (Ukraine) Aristocratic family
Privileged Education 10 y/o: Second Gymnasium
1873: University of Kiev (Law)
1873 -1877: Finds Law boring. Switches to Music... finds Music boring... switches to Natural Science
1881: Graduates with diploma in science!

Academia 1885 - 1940 University of Strasbourg
University of Zurich
Pasteur Institute
Institute of Experimental Medicine (St. Petersburg)
University of Belgrade
Back to: Pasteur Institute with Laboratory in Brie
Education 10 y/o: Second Gymnasium
1873: University of Kiev (Law)
1873 -1877: Finds Law boring. Switches to Music... finds Music boring... switches to Natural Science
1881: Graduates with diploma in science! Chemolitotrophy /
Chemoautotrophy Contributions
to SCIENCE! Monomorphism 1885: Under Anton de Bary Working with Beggiatoa At the time Koch and others were producing mixed cultures
Which promoted the theory of pleomorphism
Sergei was able to replicate Beggiatoa's natural environment
On Glass slides with silica gel

He observed that the bacteria was rod shaped, not pleomorphic. He later wrote "bacteria are…like other organisms, characterized by morphological types that can and should be systemically grouped into genera and species." Further research with Beggiatoa Sulfide oxidation: 2H2S + O2 → 2S + 2H2O Showed the Beggiatoa could further oxidize elemental sulphur to sulphate
Winogradsky proved that the sulfur granules resulted from the oxidation of H2S for energy and that the bacteria used CO2 as a carbon source.

In 1887, Winogradsky wrote “I have shown that the reason for this is that these organisms have a nutrition which is different from all other non-chlorophyll containing organisms.” Nitrogen Oxidation NH3+ -> NO3- and NO3- -> NO2- Focused researched on the oxidation of nitrogen in soil
Proved that oxidation was a two step process that was carried out by separate organisms

Two species of nitrifying bacteria isolated by Sergei
N. winogradskyi (ATCC 24391) More Contributions Iron oxidizing bacteria Retting of flax and hemp using anaerobic bacteria Nitrogen Fixation
bacteria in root nodules, not the plants, were the active agents for nitrogen fixation
References Comrades Revolution and War 1917: Flees from
Russia. 1939-1945: Retires from science
for 15 years. Began with
the German occupation of
Poland, then France Koch: 1880's+ - Identification of Cholera and Turberculosis causing agents, and his postulates

Pasteur: 1880's+ - Vaccine for rabies,

Petri: 1887 - Develops the petri dish.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: 1887 - Writes a Study in Scarlet

Hans Christian Gram: 1884: Develops Gram Stain Ivanowski: 1892: Launches the field of virology 1906: Kellog's corn flakes are introduced Ackert, L. T. (2008). The Cycle of Life in Ecology:Sergei Vinogradskii's Soil Microbiology, 1885-1940. New Haven: Yale University.
Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2012, January 13). Sergey Nikolayevich Winogradsky. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Brittanica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/645499/Sergey-Nikolayevich-Winogradsky
Information Center of Russia. (2012, January 13). Sergei Winogradsky: Soil Microbiologist. Retrieved from Sergei Winogradsky: Soil Microbiologist: http://www.ihst.ru/projects/emigrants/vinogradskii.htm
King-Thom, C., & Case, C. (2001). Sergei Winogradsky: Founder of Soil Microbiology. SIM News, 95-125.
Schroetz, J. (2009). Sergei Nikolaevitch Winogradsky: A pioneer in Environmental Biology. Germany: University of Duisburg-Essen.
Tortora, G., Funke, B., & Case, C. (2005). Microbiology: An Introduction. San Francisco: Pearson.
Wainwright, M., & Lederberg, J. (1992). History of Microbiology. Encylopedia of Microbiology, 419-437.
Winogradsky, S. N. (1946). Principesde la Microbiologie Oecologique. Paris: Institut Pasteur â Brie Comte-Robert.

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