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History Of Special Education
Transcript of History Of Special Education
students with disabilities
Overview of Important Events and Legislation
in Special Education
- P.L 94-142
- Mandates that children with disabilities have a right to:
A free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
- The right of due process
- Education in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
- Individualized Education Programs (IEP)
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act
- P.L. 93-112
- Bars discrimination against people with disabilities in any federally funded program
- Specifically requires appropriate education services for students with disabilities
- Requires a school district to provide a “
free appropriate public education
” (FAPE) to each qualified person with a disability who is in the school district’s jurisdiction, regardless of the nature or severity of the person’s disability.
- First civil rights law specifically protecting the rights of students who are disabled and handicapped
Section 504-The Rehabilitation Act- 1973
1972- PARC vs. Pennsylvania Case
1972 – Mills vs. Public Education Case
1960’s and Early 1970’s- Advocacy Groups
1954: Brown vs. Board of Education
The Civil Rights Movement…
- Public Law 85-926
- Amendment to the National Education Act
- First federal law addressing special education
- Authorized funding to train teachers and leadership personnel to educate students who were considered or labeled as mentally retarded
The History of Special Education
IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (reamendment to EAHCA) 2004
Guaranteed the Following 6 Protections:
1. Zero Reject
2. IEP (Individualized Education Program/Plan)
3. Appropriate Evaluation
4. Procedural Safeguards
5. Parent Child Participation
FAPE (Free and Appropriate Public Education)
Established that students with disabilities have a right to free and appropriate public education
School districts must provide these services regardless of the districts ability to pay.
Beattie vs. Board of Education (1919)
- 13 years of age
- Had been crippled since birth, with a form a paralysis which affected his whole physical and nervous make-up
- He had no control of his voice, hands, feet and body
- He often drooled on his clothing and books and was very excitable
"It was claimed by the school board that his physical condition and ailment produces a depressing and nauseating effect upon the teachers and school children; that by reason of his physical condition he takes up an undue portion of the teacher’s time and attention, distracts the attention of the other pupils, and interferes generally with the discipline and progress of the school…”
The Court upheld the decision for the district to remove Merritt from school.
The Education of Mentally Retarded Children Act of 1958
End to "Separate but Equal schools"
Special Education Act: 1961
- P.L. 87-286
- Authorizes funds for training professionals to train teachers of the deaf
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act: 1965
- P.L. 89-10 (ESEA)
- Provides a plan for rectifying inequality of educational opportunities to student are economically underprivileged
- Authorized federal aid to improve the education of disadvantaged children including students with disabilities
was to improve educational equity for
- Resulted in the Head Start program
- Later reamended to NCLB
Special Education: A reference handbook By Arlene Sacks
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No Child Left Behind (2001)
A United States Act of Congress
A reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (which includes Title I)
No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer a state-wide standardized test annually to all students
According to the NCLB- by 2014 every child is supposed to test on grade level in reading and math
During World War I (1914-1918), veterans returned home injured from the war in need for rehabilitation services
Vocational rehabilitation concepts of disability were influenced greatly by World War I and again for World War II, the emergence of rehabilitation technology, and the need to rehabilitate veterans and civil service employees injured in the line of duty.
After each of the major wars, the U.S. Congress responded to the needs of returning veterans with rehabilitation legislation
World War I & II and Transition Services
Until 1943, only veterans and
government workers who were
disabled received support and
1943 -The Vocational Rehabilitation Amendments (Barden-LaFollette Act) extended those services to civilians who were not government workers
offered a comprehensive definition of vocational rehabilitation
expanded services to include physical restoration (such as examinations, prosthetic and orthotic devices, etc.)
expansion of services included on a limited basis person who were mentally handicapped and mentally ill
fostered separate agencies for general rehabilitation and rehabilitation of person who were blind
Indicator 13-created the Indicator 13 Checklist-a checklist that is used to assess the quality of post secondary transition goals and their relationship to the rest of the
Obama administration developed waivers-a way to let states off the hook from requiring 100% of all students performing Proficient on Math and reading (2011)
Schools that apply for the waiver agree to college and career-ready standards and assessments, implement an accountability system to reward schools showing progress, schools must develop ways to evaluate and support teacher and principal effectiveness based on proven factors including student progress, not a sustainable replacement
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and DC has applied and received approval on NCLB waiver; states rejected are California and Iowa, Illinois’s application is pending, North Dakota and Wyoming withdrew their applications and Montana and Nebraska have not applied (as of January 30, 2014)
NCLB-What’s happening now?
Danielson’s framework for teaching identifies aspects of a teacher’s responsibilities that empirical studies have demonstrated as promoting improved student learning.
Charlotte Danielson Model
- P.L 101-336
Provides four major areas:
- Private sector employment
- Public services
- Public accommodations
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990
(Hunt & Marshall, 2012, p. 24)
Impact on Legislation Today:
First Deaf School in America
"The first school for Deaf children was established by Colonel William Bolling of Virginia, He has two deaf siblings, and himself had two deaf children. He did not want to send his children to Braidwood School in Edinburgh, England. He heard that John Braidwood was in America trying to start a Braidwood School."
Braidwood was imprisoned in New York for bad debts. Bolling paid him out of debt and financed a school in Virginia in 1815 with five students in attendance. Braidwood was not dependable and the school only lasted a few years."
Colonial William Bolling
Connecticut Asylum at Hartford for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb Persons" in Hartford, Connecticut
Now known as the American School for the Deaf.
Opened by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, Dr. Mason Cogswell, and Laurent Clerc
1856-Amos Kendall donated two acres of his estate in D.C.
It was opened to school and house 12 deaf students and 6 blind students
It was originally called "Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and Blind".
Edward Miner Gallaudet, son of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, became the schools' new Superintendent.
1864 Congress authorized that the university can confer college degrees
1894 the name changed to "Gallaudet University" in honor of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
1986: It was granted as "university" status, changing it's name to "Gallaudet University".
Council for Exceptional Children
"In the summer of 1922, a group of students attending the Teachers College at Columbia University organized a meeting to discuss ways to promote fellowship among educators as well as a means of exchanging ideas among workers in special education. The students invited Elizabeth Farrell, their professor, to attend this meeting at which the International Council for the Education of Exceptional Children was founded, and later became known as the Council for Exceptional Children."
John F. Kennedy's Influence
JFK formed the.Panel on Mental Retardation.
"Mental retardation ranks with mental health as a major health, social, and economic problem in this country. It strikes our most precious asset, our children." —John F. Kennedy, February 5, 1963
JFK's younger sister, Rosemary, who was diagnosed as having an Intellectual Disability
Special Olympics 1965
Best Buddies International
"Anthony K. Shriver is the Founder and Chairman of Best Buddies International, which he created in 1989 to foster one-to-one friendships between people with and without intellectual disabilities. Recognizing the tremendous volunteer potential of university students, Shriver first inspired his college peers to personally collaborate in expanding the realm of opportunities that persons with intellectual disabilities should experience."
Visually Impaired and Blind Education
Louis Braille, the inventor of the tactile reading and writing system for the blind. He developed his tactile reading and writing system by 1820, but it was not embraced immediately as the reading medium for the blind.
"The first residential school for the blind was established in America in 1829. It was the New England Asylum for the Blind. The term asylum was used in the names of most of the early schools. Today, the New England Asylum is the Perkins School for the Blind located in Watertown, Mass."
First Residential School for the Blind
The first public school in America was established by Puritan settlers in 1635 in the home of Schoolmaster Philemon Pormont and was later moved to School Street. Boys from various socio-economic backgrounds attended Boston Latin School until 1972 when girls were also accepted.
First Public School in the United States
Eunice Kennedy Shriver founded the Special Olympics in Chicago, Illinois
2016 Summer Paralympics
Larry P. v. Wilson Riles
1972 & 1979
1979 Ruling that completely prohibited the use of I.Q tests for placing African American Students in classes with mild intelletual disabilities
Provides the overview of the intent of the law
Delineates categories of eligibility and rights to services for students aged 3-21
Provides direction regarding services for children birth-age 2
Identifies technical assistance centers
Every Student Succeeds Act -2015
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Recent changes to Autism Spectrum Disorder
DSM-VAs of May 2013, psychologists and psychiatrists will be using the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) revised definition of “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.
Former (DSM-IV) Disabilities that fell under Autism Spectrum:
PDD-Pervasive Developmental Disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
DSM-5 replaces this continuum with a single diagnostic category of “Autism Spectrum Disorder.”