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PHILIPPINE CINEMA and SOCIETY: Industry and Audience

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Ice Cruz

on 14 August 2013

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Transcript of PHILIPPINE CINEMA and SOCIETY: Industry and Audience

Eunice Valerie P. Cruz, SDA Faculty
SY 2012-2013

PHILIPPINE CINEMA and
SOCIETY:
Industry & Audience

finals: August 30, 2012
SCHEDULE OF ACVITIES
Film Text
Audience
Industrial Structure
(in the context of history, society
and culture)
3 MAIN AREAS OF STUDY:
To map out the connections between Philippine
Cinema and it's social context is to locate the grids across which cinema gains emergence and presence in Philippine society.
1. The Cinematic Encounter: Beginnings and Transformations (1897-1900)

- Two days after Rizal was shot, the first films to come to the Philippines had begun to unreel in a small projection house in downtown Escolta, Manila (Salon Pertierra Theater).

- Showing short documentaries of banal scenes from the Gaumont Chronophotograph
HISTORY:
Industry and Audience
- Two years later, Filipino businessman Antonio Ramos brought in Lumiere's cinematograph (SINE) and showed films under Swiss merchants Leibman and Peritz.

- This cinematic encounter shows that Philippine cinematic history begins with short films.

- It is unfortunate that not much space is devoted to Philippine short film tradition in history ; when we speak of Philippine Cinema, it should not be made to refer only to mainstream cinema.
-
Ethnographic films
- cockfights to processions, gold mining, construction of Manila Hotel - were made about the Philippines.
2. Cinema as Colonial Technology (1900-1915)
- These films did not so much describe the Philippines as project a sense of progress in the hands of American rulers.
- anti- Spanish films were shown and produced by businessmen

- It is also during this period when 3 important aspects of filmmaking would take root:
censorship, imposition of government taxes
and
international distribution
3. Cinema as Hollywood Industry (1916-1940)
- As the public settled into place, mainly in Manila and Cebu, and watching movies became a way of life, an industry which would cater to a new taste for film had to rise.

- Philippine Cinema stood at the intersections of colonial theater and Hollywood, elitist resistance and a growing film public, folk traditions and foreign technology.

- Notions of
Genre
and
Star System
would gradually take over the industry
- Filipino film pioneers, mostly from the mestizo class sustained their enterprises with capital amassed from agriculture industry - Jose Nepomuceno put up Malayan Pictures (1917); V. Salumbides - Salumbides Corp. (1927); Julian Manansala - Banahaw Pictures (1929).

- The first Filipino film was shown in 1919. Nepomuceno's
"Dalagang Bukid"
was a sarswela starring Atang dela Rama.
- The Japanese Occupation made the industry realize that cinema as a social institution had power, seen by the State as a potent medium which must be reined in through censorship and unleashed through propaganda.

- The Japanese clamped down on movie production

- Film production ground to a halt and enterntainment shifted to _________________ and the Japanese drew up strict censorship guidelines.
4. Cinema as Nostalgia for Nation (1941-1960)
GUERILLA-GARRISON GENRE
(define)
: revolving around Japanese atrocities,
the celebration of Yankee liberation and
guerrilla struggle, this type of narrative could
have only betrayed the political interests
of film.
- Post war reconstruction: gripped by nostalgia for
nation, a sense of mourning for the things lost in war.
*such bereavement sharpened the creative instincts of
filmmakers.

-
First Golden Age
: time when Philippines was
starting to be recognized as a film capital, both
Asian and world cinema
Gerardo de Leon, Manuel Silos,
Gregorio Fernandez, Manuel Conde,
Lamberto Avellana
* But later, Golden Age began to tarnish, the studio system, managed by kinship networks, would be beset by almost insurmountable problems:

1. labor
2. rising of technology
3. fires which gutted installations
*Studios continued to hold sway: The Big
Three ruled the realm (LVN - comedy &
musicals, Narcisa de Leon, Sampaguita
- melodramas)
- Absence of system which coordinated a program of sound film entertaiment fare, film trends abroad flooded the market
5. Cinema as Social Decadence and Dissent
(1960-1986)
spaghetti westerns, detective films, sex flicks, kung-fu pictures, etc.
- Hollywood and Third World imitations
- Bomba genre flourished
- Imelda Marcos' Experimental Cinema of the
Philippines and Manila International Film
Festivals, sowed their own seeds

- Documentary, feature, experimental, animation, docu
drama, etc.

- Kidlat Tahimik and Nick DeOcampo

- Mainstream directors gained recognition abroad: Lino Brocka, Mike de Leon, Ishmael Bernal
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