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History of atomic theory and the development of the periodic table

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Jose Maria Ojeda

on 8 February 2013

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Transcript of History of atomic theory and the development of the periodic table

History of atomic theory and the development of the periodic table
By Abdulla Al-Kalisy and Jose Ojeda Ancient Greek Atomism Alchemy to Chemistry Lavoisier Lavoisier Isaac Newton Mendeleev Galileo -Key Players:

- Derived from the Greek word “Atomos” meaning “indivisible”
-Democritus’ definition (460 BC):
-Miniscule, indivisible particles with infinite sizes shapes, arrangements that compose all matter -Lasted thousands of years, with accounts dating back to the ancient Greek and Egyptian civilizations

-Commonly defined as the search for a way to transform metals into gold, Alchemy encompasses a vast area of subjects, spanning from elements of wizardry all the way to the foundations of modern day chemistry

-Mid-17th century the practice of using physical methods overtook the previously more popular method of theoretical methods of studying matter.
-Robert Boyle (1627-1691): “Chemistry” Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794) Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642), was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy",the "father of modern physics", the "father of science",and "the Father of Modern Science". -"Atomic Structure Timeline." Atomic Structure Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012.

-"Modern Physics." Atoms. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. Works Cited -"The History of the Modern Atomic Theory." The History of the Modern Atomic Theory.
N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. -"HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY." HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec.
2012. -Zumdahl, Steven S., and Susan A. Zumdahl. Chemistry. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
2007. Print.
-"Galileo Galilei." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Dec. 2012. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. Questioned transubstantiation with his atomic theory.
Atomic theory was not clear.
A chemical reaction leads the rearrangement of parts to minuscule to be seen in a substance. Ernest Rutherford Thompson atomic Model Dalton's Atomic Theory Dalton's Atomic Theory
1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
2) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
4) A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms. http://www.google.com/imgres?num=10&hl=en&tbo=d&biw=1241&bih=606&tbm=isch&tbnid=X7CFws1C9VPjYM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alchemical-symbols-1775.jpg&docid=uV9pdGJEwzxwUM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Alchemical-symbols-1775.jpg&w=1030&h=1123&ei=0o_OUNOgJaWPyAGQmoDADw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=4&sig=101913321808966416818&page=1&tbnh=138&tbnw=126&start=0&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:159&tx=83&ty=40 http://www.chemistry.mtu.edu/~pcharles/SCIHISTORY/graphics/johnDalton.gif http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/thomson.gif - JJ Thompson discovered the electron whilst experimenting with Cathode Rays
-Came up with the Plum Pudding model:
-One large "cloud" of positive with smaller,
negatively charged particles amongst it.- electrons http://www.educationalelectronicsusa.com/p/images/modernphy_fig_11.jpg Cathode Ray -Ernest Rutherford, 1911, discovered the nucleus of an atom, and the proton, thus becoming not only the first man to "split the atom" but also to "split the nucleus" http://www.daviddarling.info/images/Rutherford_gold-foil_experiment.jpg http://astronomy.nmsu.edu/geas/lectures/lecture18/pics/lec18_amod02.png Quantitative chemistry
Law of conservation of mass
Study of combustion
Air contains two principal components
A component essential to respiration, Oxygen
A component vital to combustion, Carbon Guinea Pig experiment Modern approach to Chemistry
Reformed chemical nomenclature Idea that particles are held together with forces, attractions
Study of particles Created a promising periodic table
Periodic table based on atomic weight
Listed sixty-three known elements
Left space for new elements, yet to be discovered
Mentioned that atomic weights were in error Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794) Idea of classification
Created first list of elements
Not precise
Confusion between energy and elements
Innovative Moseley Henry Moseley (1887-1915) Study of the atomic structure
Argued that atomic weight was not significant in ordering
Developed the application of X-ray spectra
X-ray emissions of the elements agree with ordering of elements by atomic number http://www.google.com/imgres?q=isaac+newton&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&client=safari&sa=N&tbo=d&rls=en&biw=1260&bih=584&tbm=isch&tbnid=GmNq-RBVKQhIxM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton&docid=Lx1zRTA9D9RisM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689.jpg/220px-GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689.jpg&w=220&h=302&ei=ixvPUMb9EqHtygGBo4G4Aw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=4&vpy=141&dur=2&hovh=241&hovw=176&tx=66&ty=102&sig=102129026968581950506&page=1&tbnh=143&tbnw=99&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:156 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=lavoisier+periodic+table&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&client=safari&sa=N&tbo=d&rls=en&biw=1260&bih=584&tbm=isch&tbnid=O2TC_AS_fEmAbM:&imgrefurl=http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt_database.php%3FPT_id%3D3&docid=VkWUBwiriSpCwM&imgurl=http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/lavosier.png&w=479&h=835&ei=5hvPUMbsOoTUyQHV2YGYCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=330&vpy=71&dur=60&hovh=297&hovw=170&tx=84&ty=152&sig=102129026968581950506&page=1&tbnh=131&tbnw=75&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:96 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=mendeleev+periodic+table&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&client=safari&sa=N&tbo=d&rls=en&biw=1260&bih=584&tbm=isch&tbnid=FL_FHzzMmMB0rM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table&docid=A6HZrcX5R3dZgM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bb/Mendeleev%2527s_1869_periodic_table.png/250px-Mendeleev%2527s_1869_periodic_table.png&w=250&h=307&ei=MRzPUM2NPNPOyAHAhoD4Dw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=76&vpy=138&dur=1141&hovh=245&hovw=200&tx=130&ty=97&sig=102129026968581950506&page=1&tbnh=140&tbnw=117&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:107 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt1930.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt_database.php?PT_id%3D13&h=240&w=620&sz=11&tbnid=eggkCQK18aSsEM:&tbnh=45&tbnw=116&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dmoseley%2Bperiodic%2Btable%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=moseley+periodic+table&usg=__HITXb-_ZFd3NDgMKsRzu4Ao8Aqg=&docid=rKeecP2UbRSjVM&sa=X&ei=bhzPUIGfNsKCyAGskIDQBg&ved=0CFQQ9QEwBg&dur=254 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=guinea+pig+experiment+lavoisier&um=1&hl=en&safe=off&client=safari&tbo=d&rls=en&biw=1260&bih=584&tbm=isch&tbnid=HXGQ3-CzLi5CMM:&imgrefurl=http://www.esdaw.eu/cageexperiment.htm&docid=cewxvu2mG_C3BM&imgurl=http://www.freewebs.com/occupyforanimals-org/testg.jpg&w=450&h=499&ei=qxzPULXSGaiYygHjnoGgAQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=361&sig=102129026968581950506&page=1&tbnh=139&tbnw=137&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:87&tx=64&ty=46 Niels Bohr -1922, discovered electrons orbit around the nucleus very similarly to planets orbiting the sun
-used quantum mechanics to determine electrons moved between energy levels in discreet steps, not continuously
-Although he conceived the possible existence of the neutron, It’s discovery was credited to James Chadwick, who, in 1932, determined its existence by using scattering data http://education.jlab.org/qa/atom_model_02.gif 1803 1897 http://www.ptable.com/Images/periodic%20table.png
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