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Beneath the surface: coral reefs

Teen Summer Reading Program, Marion Public Library, 20 July 2013
by

Danwei Huang

on 23 August 2013

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Transcript of Beneath the surface: coral reefs

Beneath the Surface
Coral Reefs

What is a reef?
Large structure at or near the surface of the water
Can be natural or artificial
Where do you find coral reefs
Warm tropical seas
(minimum 20ºC or 68ºF)
How deep are coral reefs?
Shallow, rarely deeper than 50 m
Why?
What use are reefs?
Food resource (protein): each person consumes ~29 kg (64 lb) of fish and seafood every year (180 kg in Maldives)
Dan & Matt
University of Iowa

Image from Kevin DuBart
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RmPTM965-1c&feature=related start at 1:17

Sponges
Image by Albert Kok
animaladay.blogspot.com
Pistol shrimp
Coral reef alliance
Utahreefs.com
Molluscs
Whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com
Aquariumofpacific.org
Deadly molluscs
What is a coral?
Animal
The living reef
Veron (2000)
"Jellyfish that is upside down"

Upward pointing mouths surrounded by tentacles

Colonies made up of interconnected individuals
At least 1 million species (20% of all species on Earth)
Despite covering only 0.1% of Earth’s area
Green, single cells

Photosynthetic (use light energy to make food)

Residing within coral cells, often in tentacles

Provide up to 90% of coral's nutrient needs
Solitary Fungia

Encrusting Oulastrea

Free-living Trachyphyllia

Laminar Pectinia

Foliose Echinopora

Columnar Psammocora

Branching Pectinia

Branching Acropora

Stromatolite:
reef formed by bacteria
Wreck:
reef formed by sunken vessels
Sand bar:
reef formed by sand
Coral reef:
reef formed by corals
picture-newsletter.com
Vegetable (plant)
Mineral (rock)
What is a coral?
Animal
Algae
Limestone (calcium carbonate)
Fire coral
Giant clams
wikipedia.org
How do corals reproduce?
(i) Budding into 2 individuals
How do corals reproduce?
(ii) Spawning egg bundles
Corals
J. Lokrantz/Azote
Simon & Potere (2007)
Burke et al. (2011)
Teh et al. (2013)
Jobs: ~6 million reef fishers in the world (40% of population in New Caledonia)
What use are reefs?
Tourism: dive shops, hotels, restaurants, transportation, recreational fishing, beach visitors
What use are reefs?
Protection of land (lives and property!)
cruise-dude.com
USGS
White sand
> 275 million people live within 30 km (18 miles) of reefs, including entire population of 40 countries
Coral reefs are threatened
Coral bleaching: loss of algae
The world is getting warmer
NASA
ALAMY
Coral reefs are threatened
Coral diseases
Weil et al. (2006)
globaldive.net
Summary
youtu.be/XC6I8iPiHT8
youtu.be/tWwebIIAQR4
youtu.be/nAbi3662YTg
Full transcript