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Transcript of The Bureaucracy
, bureaucrats are defined as employees in the executive branch of government who are hired to deliver public services.
, however, many private-sector employees—the so-called shadow bureaucrats—also implement public policy.
Although most people think of government agencies when they hear the word bureaucracy, a bureaucracy is any large, hierarchical organization featuring a division of labor, specialization of tasks, standard operating procedures, and a chain of command.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Based on studies cited by public administration scholar
, most government employees are very motivated and are hard workers.
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
Jimmy Carter proposed the civil service reforms that led to passage of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 somewhat out of a response to Watergate.
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 replaced the Civil Service Commission (CSC) and created or supported the creation of the agencies:
the Office of Personnel Management (OPM).
the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA).
the Merit System Protection Board (MSPB).
the Senior Executive Service (AFGE).
Public Policy Cycle
According to political scientists there are 6 stages are there in the public policy cycle.
Politically Neutral Bureaucrats? really?
According to the politics-administration dichotomy politically neutral bureaucrats implement public policy.
Proceed with Caution!
National Civil Servant Union
Members of the National Civil Servant Union are denied the right to strike or negotiate salaries and work hours.
General Accountability Office (GAO)
General Accountability Office is a part of the federal bureaucracy that primarily serves the legislative branch.
According to Max Weber, bureaucracies possess the following features:
division of labor and specialization of job tasks
hiring systems based on worker competency
hierarchy with a vertical chain of command
standard operating procedures
The Plum Book
Senior executive service (SES)
The Health and Human Services department currently has the largest budget.
Secretary of . . .
Secretary is the title given to the top political appointee who heads each of the national government's 15 departments. Except the head of the DOJ.
Independent agencies of the United States federal government are those agencies that exist outside the federal executive departments (those headed by a Cabinet secretary) and the Executive Office of the President. They include:
the Smithsonian Institution
the National Science Foundation
the General Services Administration
the Office of Personnel Management.
Independent Regulatory Commission
The Independent Regulatory Commission is a regulatory agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over development of standards for specific industries and businesses.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Interstate Commerce Commission was the first independent regulatory commission established by the federal government in 1887.
Government Corporations are expected to make enough money to cover its own costs.
Only Congress, the president, and the federal judiciary have the legal means to monitor bureaucrats' work and hold them accountable.
Congress encourages bureaucratic accountability by:
by approving the legislation that creates, regulates, and funds bureaucracies
through Senate confirmation of top bureaucrats
thorough legislative oversight of agency policies
by investigating the concerns of citizens, media, or interest groups regarding agency policy implementation
Sunshine laws open up government functions and documents to the public, ensuring transparency and public access to decision making
Authorization laws refers to laws that provide plans of action to address societal concerns and identify the executive units that will put them into effect
A sunset clause forces the expiration of a program or policy after a specified number of years without congressional reauthorization.
Ethics in Government Act
The Ethics in Government Act established the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), which is charged with preventing bureaucratic conflicts of interest
Civil Service Reform Act
The Civil Service Reform Act provided protection to whistle-blowers, employees who disclose government misconduct, waste, or abuses of authority.
According to research, all of the following are important characteristics of the best-performing bureaucracies:
clear language in the authorizing legislation.
easily measured goals.
high levels of support from Congress.
high levels of support from the public
Those workers who do the work of government but don't get a government paycheck are known as shadow bureaucrats.
Before the establishment of the civil service system in 1883, The president hired bureaucrats through the patronage system to staff the federal bureaucracy
The assassination of President James Garfield by an unsuccessful seeker of a patronage position spurred passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Act in 1883
The Pendleton Civil Service Act introduced a civil service system for the national government based on merit.
The plum book is the name given to the book, published every four years, that lists the federal positions available through presidential patronage.
The biggest downside to holding a patronage position in the federal bureaucracy is that there is no job security.
Senior executive service (SES) positions are hybrids of political appointments and civil service positions.
Ones rank determines the salary of federal employee.
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in personnel practices based on basis of sex, race, color, national origin, and religion.
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)