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The Audio-Lingual Method vs. The Communicative Approach.
Transcript of The Audio-Lingual Method vs. The Communicative Approach.
Teaching of listening and speaking before reading and writing.
Dialogues and grammar drills.
Combination of behavioral psychology and linguistic structuralism.
Result as a reaction of the shortcomings of the grammar translation method.
Similar to the direct method = reject the use of mother tongue.
Term Audiolingualism coined by Professor Nelson Brooks (1964).
Decline in the 60s but still used today.
Chomsky neglected this approach:
Language = creative and generated, not a habit.
Language = innate from human's mind.
Question & answer.
Background build up (or back chaining).
Use of minimal pairs.
Short term objectives:
Training in listening comprehension.
Reading comprehension and production.
Ultimate goal: same abilities as native speakers.
To appropriate use of language.
To develop interaction.
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
Ana Isabel Muñoz Martinez
Patricia Galera Simon
THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD vs. THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH.
'Army Method' (1942): army specialized training program, WWII.
10 h/day, 6 days/week.
1950s standardized way of teaching.
Still used in individual lessons.
Behaviorism: associations, habit formation, reinforcement.
stimulus response feedback.
Structuralism: signifier (sound pattern) + signified (concept).
Linguistic levels pyramidally structured.
1960s: changes in the British language teaching tradition.
Situational Language Teaching.
Decline of the Audio-Lingual method.
Dissatisfaction: discovery of the functional and communicative potential of language.
1972, D. A. Wilkins: systems of meanings behind the communicative uses of languages.
Communicative Approach or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) rapidly accepted.
Theory of language:
Communicative competence: Hymes (1972). Contrast with Chomsky's theory of competence (1965): ideal speaker-listener .
Functional: Halliday (1970): speech acts
Sociocultural context: Firth.
Principles of CLT:
Notional categories (time, sequence, quantity, location, and frequency).
Communicative function categories (request, denials, offers, etc...)
Interviews (questions and answers).
Information gap or Scrambled sentences.
Language exchanges .
Learning by teaching (Presentation).
Joseph C,, Mukalel (1998). Approaches to English language teaching. Delhi: Discovery Pulshing House.
Richards, J. C. & Rogers, T. S. (1986). Approaches and methods in language teaching: A description and analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th ed.). New York: Longman
Richards, Jack C. (2006). Communicative language teaching today. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
Savignon, Sandra J. (2002). Interpreting communicative language teaching: Contexts and concerns in teacher education. United States of America. Yale University Press.
Greta Gorsuch, Japanese EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Communicative, Audiolingual and Yakudoku Activities: The Plan Versus the Reality. Texas Tech University.