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Transcript of psychology
what psychological variables affect performance in sports?
Impact of Stress
One of the most crucial skills taught in Sport Psychology, is concentration. Athletes have to: 1) focus on applicable cues around them. 2) keep their focus on the cues for a extended time. 3) be aware of what's going on. 4) be able to quickly change their focal point
Newmark, Thomas. "Cases in Visualization for Improved Athletic Performance." Psychiatric Annals 42.10 (2012): 383-387. Print.
Olausson, D. (2014). Emotion and concentration regulation training in Swedish female handball players: A short-term IZOF-based intervention.. (Student paper). Högskolan i Halmstad.
Schippers, Michaéla C., and Paul A. M. Van Lange. "The Psychological Benefits Of Superstitious Rituals In Top Sport: A Study Among Top Sportspersons." Journal of Applied Social Psychology (2006): 2532-553. Print.
Every athlete has a certain focus style, either internal or external.
strategies to improve concentration
1) Stimulation Training- identifying distractions and learning to handle them
2) Cue Words- words/phrases that remind you of what you need to concentrate on
3) Positive Self-Talk
4) Switching On and Off- Learning when and where to shift your focus (on= task, off= off task)
5) 'Parking' Thoughts- putting your problems away until later
6) Staying In The 'Here and Now'- Focus on the present
Internal (thoughts and concerns) : living in the past, living in the future, negative self-talk, arousal levels and anxiety, and fatigue.
External (environment) : visual distractions and audio distractions
A clinical technique used to help athletes overcome performance anxiety, by engaging them in a mental rehearsal of their performance in their sport. It can sharpen his or her focus and restore confidence in their ability to follow through.
The patient, a 17-year old girl, who was in gymnastics, experienced high levels of anxiety when she was in front of the judges at competitions. The girl chose to try visualization therapy, and at her first session she started off with progressive muscle relaxation. Progressive muscle relaxation is when you concentrate on tightening and then relaxing one group of muscles at a time, until your whole body is completely relaxed. While in this state she then was told to use her auditory, visual, and tactile senses to imagine herself performing at a competition. She then described what she saw, heard, and experienced. It was suggested that at the time of saluting the judges she would instantly feel calm and confident, which was her cue to feel relaxed.
This visualization was done over multiple sessions and at home. After three months she improved in her performances/scores in competitions, she felt more relaxed and focused, and had more fun.
Why/how it works..
By using all of the sensory processes, the body is creating a neurological blueprint internally. When recreating these memories one is creating an internal circuit that is then mapped into the body; which then aids performance. The psychological blue print creates a neurological structure giving you a physical representation connecting the mind and body. The idea is to try and incorporate all sensory modalities creating what is called a synaesthesia.
Athletes who have an internal focus style, perform at their peak when all of their attention is consistently directed at their sport (competition, practice, etc.).This is because their focus is narrow and they can be easily distracted.
Athletes who have an external focus style, perform best when they only focus on their sport right before performance. This is because external athletes tend to over think and stress themselves out, or become negative.
The above demonstrates how internalisers perform better in associative tasks (internal cues, such as: muscle tension and breathing) and externalisers perform better in dissociative tasks (external cues, such as: daydreaming, admiring the view, etc.)
Rituals empower athletes to be
prepared to perform to the best of their abilities.
Celtics' point guard, known for his intelligence and perfectionism. His pre-game ritual involves the back hallway of the arena & ends with him juggling four basketballs at once
why they work..
Unusual, repetitive, and rigid behavior that is perceived to have a positive effect by the actor, whereas in reality there is no causal link between the behavior and the outcome of an event
how they work..
The tension-regulating function of rituals, may help more often than harm an athlete to perform well and contribute to team performance. Research by Lobmeyer and Wasserman (1986) indicated that rituals carried out just before taking a free throw during a basketball game, appear to influence subsequent performance in a positive way. Moreover, their work suggested that subsequent performance was only promoted in those who believed that the enactment of rituals would have beneficial effects on performance. This effect of rituals on performance is called psychological placebo (Neil 1980), who sought to explain the positive effects of rituals in terms of self-fulfilling prophecies and confirmation processes. Rituals “work” because the person believes in them and expects this.
Dealing with psychological stress in sports can
be incredibly difficult.
Without proper handling, stress can not only
affect ones mental, but also physical abilities.
It can decrease the athletes ability to preform
and the length of the career for the athlete.
Athletes are not the only people in sports that
must deal with stress, coaches and owners also
face situations that can cause negative stress
Internal dialogue , thought content, self statements
Four main types of self talk
Negative self talk is associated with worse performance
Positive self talk is associated with better performance
Technical / Instructional can be used to initiate actions
Neutral self talk can be used to dissociate from the upcoming event
Athletes tend to experience negative self talk
Tuning into error to fix = dwelling on error
Receiving both negative and positive feedback
Only focus on the negative feedback
Low self confidence
Setting unrealistic goals/ being a perfectionist
All or nothing thinking
How to improve self-talk
Positive self talk
Offers motivation and encouragement
Technical/ Instructional self talk
Help stay focused on technique or performance
Best way to improve confidence and performance
Culture, personality, attitude, and values of individual athletes influences the development of confidence in athletes
Confidence stems from , achievements, self-regulation, and social climate
Three major theories regarding sport confidence
Bandura Self Efficacy
Self efficacy -–
belief in ones capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given attainments
Individual must believe they are in control and that they can produce the intended outcomes
Four Elements in developing Self-efficacy
Harters Competence Motivation Theory
Based on the athletes feeling of personal competence
If an individual succeed at mastering an act they will feel competent in them selves
If an individual does not success they will see that as a failure and will be less likely to attempt the task again
As competence motivation increase , the athlete will be more encouraged to continue improving their skills
Vealeys Sport Specific Model of Self Confidence
Sport confidence –-
the belief or degree of certainty individuals possess about their ability to be successful in sport
2 factors in sports confidence
Trait sport confidence (SC Trait)
How a performer rates their own ability to perform across a wide range of sports
State sport confidence (SC state)
How a performer rates their own ability to perform at one particular moment
–- the extend to which an individual is prepared to compete
Improve Self Confidence with Self Talk
Thoughts and feeling influence self confidence
Lack of self confidence effects how well an athlete will perform
Self talk must be positive in order to enhance the confidence of an athletes
“ its not whether you win or lose, its how you place the blame "
This theory investigated what athletes attribute their success and failures to
Four Most Common Attribution
Locus of Causality
Relates to whether the athletes perceives the cause of success or failure to lie with internal or external factors
Influence emotional response
reflects the likelihood that the event will occur
Influence expectations of future success
When success is ascribed to factors within ones control, motivation will be increased
Influence levels of motivation
Hinkle, J. S. (1994). Integrating sport psychology and sports counseling: Developmental programming, education, and research. Journal of Sport Behavior, 17(1), 52-59.
Bailis, Daniel S.. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement33.4 (Oct 2001): 213-223.
Allen, Mark S.; Jones, Marc V.; Sheffield, David. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice13.3 (Sep 2009): 205-217.
Impact of Stress
Not all stress negatively affects athletes and their performance.
The right amount of stress can be positive for the athlete.
It can cause athletes to be more alert, focused, and motivated during practice or during their performance
Relaxation in Sports
The ability to relax the mind and body is not something that can be immediately learned.
It is something that has to be developed over time with practice.
However, once learned and mastered, it can help you prolong your career and improve your performance.
Relaxation in Sports
Athletes will encounter difficult situations before, during, and after competition.
Just simply taking a step back and taking a breath can dramatically increase the athletes performance.
The use of breathing techniques is one of the most popular forms of relaxation for the human body and mind