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Noun: A noun is the person, animal, thing or place. Nouns ca

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sebastian rodriguez

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of Noun: A noun is the person, animal, thing or place. Nouns ca

grammatical terms
Conformation of the sentences
Examples:

My car is very beautiful.


I always put the oranges on top of the refrigerator.



you did not walk very fast whit Diego through the


central park.


she run fast.

possessive adjective
noun
verb
adverb
Adjective
pronoun
adverb frequency
verb
article
noun
preposition
noun
pronoun
verb AUX
verb
preposition
noun
adverb
adverb
preposition
article
noun
pronoun
verb
adverb
Adjective:
Is a word that is indicating shape(forma), quality (calidad), size, etc of a noun. For example in the sentence "this dictionary is useful", useful is the adjective and this is describing.
Adverb:
Is word that accompanies to a verbs, adjective or others adverb. When the adverb is accompanying to a verb, it can indicate the way in which the action is doing, for example "she run fast", in this sentences fast is a adverb. when the adverb is accompanying to a adjective or a adverb, it is indicating the grade of the adjective or adverb; for example in the sentence "Is too late" the adverb is too and this is accompanying the adjective to indicate the grade; other example is the word slow in the sentence "I run slow" that is indicating the grade to which the action is doing.
Article:
the article are word that accompanies the noun to indicate if it is a object or person. Indeterminate or specific. In the sentence "I have a dog" the article a indicate that I am talking about any dog. in other example, "I have the dog",
the
indicate that I am talking about a specific dog.
Preposition:
these are words that can indicate position(on, in, inside), movement(to), possession(of), company(with) and others meaning.
Pronoun:
are words that refer to the persons(I, you, he, she).

Verb:
it is word to indicate a action o state of a person. For example "I eat hamburgers",or "I am in ma house".
Verb AUX:
it is a verb that joins with others to form phrasal verbs that express different ideas. for example "I should study", in this case the word should is the verb AUX.
Conjunction
: a conjunction is a word that uses to join to sentences or part of sentences. for example in the sentences "I went to eat with Pablo and Erika" the word
and
is the conjunction. other example use the conjunction
because
to join tow sentences; "he got a good note because he studied to much".
Noun:
A noun is the person, animal, thing or place. Nouns can be divided into different groups.
(NOUN, ADJECTIVE, ADVERB, PREPOSITION, PRONOUN, VERB and VERB AUX)
(NOUN, ADJECTIVE, ADVERB, PREPOSITION, PRONOUN, VERB and VERB AUX)
Common:
they refer to general members of group of people, animals, things, places or concepts. (e.g mountains, houses, novelists, elephants, etc)
Proper:
they refer to specific people, animals, places or things (e.g William Clinton, Lassie, March, Sunday, Cali, etc). The first letter is always capitals.
Count:
they have a singular an plural forms. The singular from can be used the articles(a/an/the) and the plural with the some or the (e.g a man, some men, an apple, the children, etc.).
No-count:
they do not have a plural form or take the article(a/an) (e.g. milk, time, honesty, etc.)
Abstract:
they refer to ideas, concepts that can not be perceived by five senses (e.g. love, peace, freedom, etc.).
Concrete:
they refer to the things that can be perceived by five senses (e.g. cloud(nube), record, perfume, etc).
collective:
A noun that names a group of related members (e.g. family, army, government, jewelry (joyeria). etc)
individual:
they refer to thee members of a collective noun (e.g. sister, captain, soldiers, senator earrings(arete), etc)
Notices:
love = common, non count, abstract.
Monday = proper, count.
family = common, count, collective.
note:
when no-cont or abstract nouns are used as abstract the verb is singular (e.g. fruit does not cost much / love is a wonderful thing).
when a singular a collective noun is used as a subject, the verb is usually singular (e.g. Peter´s family is in San Gil.)
some adjectives:

this house is
small
/ this house is large
this house is
new
/ this house is
old
this neighborhood is
quiet
/ this neighborhood is
noisy
this neighborhood is
dirty
/ this neighborhood is
clean
my chair(silla) is
uncomfortable
/ my chair in
comfortable
soft(soda) drink are
cheap
/ wine is
expensive

position of adjective

my book is
new
/ it is a
new
book

the doctor are
intelligent
/ they are
intelligent
people

Joan is
beautiful
/ she is a
beautiful
woman
Frequency adverbs
Always = 100%
Usually = 90%
Often = 70%
Sometimes = 50%
Seldom = 20%
Never = 0%
the frequency adverbs always go after the auxiliary. when the sentence is with verb to be, this is amused as auxiliary.


How often did you go the beach when you were in thee states?

My family and I
always
went go to the beach on weekend in the summer.
the secretary is
rarely
late for work

I am almost
always
at the office at noon
(yo estoy casi siempre en al oficina al medidía)

Mr Douglas, the production manager, is not
often
out of town on business trips.
Mr Douglas's secretary
always
goes with him o his business.

Mr carter does not
usually
have lunch with his co-workers.

Our company has
always
been the best in the market, but we have never sold our products in another country.

Acme, Inc. will
sometimes
do business with Roadrunner and Sons.

In question, the adverbs of frequency go after the subject. Sometimes, never, rarely and seldom are not used in question.

Excuse me, Mr Johnson, are you
always
late for work?

have you
always
worked for this company.
Other expression of time
Never:
in statements(declaraciones) with an affirmative verb, it negates the statement.

There has been a many men president
.
(ha habido mucho hombres presidentes)
There has
never
been a woman president.
(nunca ha habido una mujer presidente)

Ever:
In negative statements (nunca)
I have not
ever
been to the beach.
(yo nunca he estado en la playa)
I do not think she has
ever
eaten hamburgers.
(no creo que ella nunca haya comido hamburgers)

In affirmative questions and conditional (alguna vez)
Has there
ever
been a woman president?
(ha habido alguna vez una mujer presidente?)
If you are
ever
in Chicago........
(si tu esta alguna vez en Chicago)

In negative question (alguna vez)
Why have not you
ever
worn that dress before?
(por qué no has tu alguna vez usaso ese vestido antes)

hardly ever
= casi nunca

ever since
= desde entonces
We have been friends
ever since
.
(Nosotros hemos sido amigos desde entonces)

for ever
= para siempre
already:
In affirmative statements (ya)
Man has
already
walked the on the moon.
He had
already
left by the by the time I got there.
(El ya se había ido cuando yo llegue allí.)
I think we have
already
met.
(Yo creo que nosotros ya nos habíamos conocido)

In affirmative question
have you
already
drunk your milk?

Yet
in negative statements (todavia)
Man has not walked on Mars
yet.
No, not
yet
. (todavia no)

In negative question (todavia)
Have not you finished that report
yet
?
Which one have not you seen
yet
?
(cual de esto no has visto todavia?)

In affirmative question (ya)
are yo ready
yet
?
(esta uds ya listo)

as yet = hasta ahora
As yet
, there has not been news
(hasta ahora, no ha habido noticias)






this is the first time/since

This is the first time
I have worn these shoes.

I have not gone to the beach
since
I moved here.


Since
I came here. I have not gone to the beach.





present perfect
past simple
present perfect
Never/ever
Already/yet
Never/ever
past simple
Some expression of time (tomorrow, monday, on friday, at 3:00, at noon, lately, etc.). Tell us when what time things happen . They are considered
adverbs of time
. they usually go at the en of the sentence.
(tomorrow, monday, on friday, at 3:00, at noon, lately, etc.)


What time do you usually get to the office?
I usually arrive at the office
at 7:30 am.

When did you send the merchandise(mercancia) to London?
I send it
last week.

The employes have vacation
at the end of year.

Mary was typing a letter
at 9:30 am.

The messenger can not work overtime
anymore
. his mother is sick.
Time expression like
once a week,

twice a year
,
every day,

three times a month
etc. go the end of the sentence
How often do you and your girlfriend go dancing?
We go dancing once a week


Adverb of manner(manera)
Adverb of manner
(slowly, quikly, kindly, etc.). Tell us how things are done. Most adverbs of manner are formed adding ly to an adjective. Adverb of manner are not used with the verb be when it is the main verb.
quiet / quietly
expensive / expensively
bad/ badly
easy / easily
comfortable / comfortably
careful / carefully
dangerous / dangerously
sudden(repentino) / suddenly
terrible / terribly
loud(escandaloso) / loudly
strange / strangely
wonderful / wonderfully

While adjective usually modify nouns, adverb are used to modify verbs
My sister is a quiet worker.


She buys expensive dresses.


Susan is not a careful driver.


Tom's life in dangerous.


It was a sudden accident.


This is a terrible band.

noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
She works
quietly.


She dresses
Expensively.


She does not drive
carefully.


He lives
dangerously.


It happened
suddenly.


They play
terribly.
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
Irregular adverb form.
My cousin is a good painter


adjective
noun
Some adjectives that form adverbs without -ly
Bill is a fast runner.


I look an early plane.


Did you have a long exam?


We always watch the late movie.


Larry is going to a far country.


We had a hard exam.


(the adverb soon has no adjective)

adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
he runs fast.


the plane left early.


I waited very long.


Do you go to bed late?


He will travel far.


We studied hard.


Please call me soon.

verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
He paints very well
verb
adverb
Some adjectives that have tow adverbs forms
John is a quick swimmer.


I am a slow eater.


You are a loud talker


adjective
noun
adjective
noun
adjective
noun
He swims quick/quickly.


I eat slow/slowly.


Do not talk so loud/loudly.
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
verb
adverb
Some expression of place (
here, at home, outside, downstairs
). They tell things happen.


Where can we buy a good laptop?
We can get it at
Compustore
.

Cheryl is
downstairs
. She is getting some carbon paper.

The staff want to go to
Beachview Amusement park for
the end of the year picnic.

proposition of position and place
Between, across from, next to, on the corner.

The cafeteria is next to the drugstore.

The post office is across from the cafeteria.

the bank is between the bookstore and post office.

the drugstore is on the corner on Main Street and Side Street.


position
Place
preposition of displacement
displacement
In, on, at, under.
preposition of time
When is your birthday? It is in November.

When is the parade? It is on November 17.

When is the party? It is at about 10:00.



The party is going to be from 9:00 pm to about 1:300

Notice the position of preposition
Other preposition
about:
1(sobre, acerca de); the book is about dinosaurs / I am thinking about dropping out of school(estoy pensando en dejar los estudios).
2 what about/how about; a para hacer sugerencias: How about a drink?(que te parece si tomamos una bebida). b para pedir la opion de alguien: what about jack? what is he having?(y jack? que va a tomar?).
3 para indicar causa: I could tell she was annoyed(molesta) about something(me di cuenta que ella estaba enojada por algo) / they were very excited about the idea.
4 por: their clothes were scattered(dispersa) about the room.


of:
1(de); a cup of coffe.
2 indicando casa: she died of cancer
3 en fechas: the 27th of july.

with:
1 es quivalente a con en la mayoria de los contextos; I saw with him / a house with a garage.
2 expresiones causas; I was shivering with cold(tiritar, escalofrios)(yo estaba temblando del frio.). she is sick with worry(ella esta muy preocupada). expresiones Caracteristicas; the girl with long hair. that guy with glasses. Empleo; Are you with ecopetrol?(sigue trabajando en ecopetrol.)
3 la expresion with it sinifica moderno, con onda, lucido; your mom is so with it(tu mama es tan moderna). I am not feeling very with it today(yo no me siento muy lucido hoy).
4 la expresion I am not with you sinifica; no estoy deacuerdo con tigo.

indefinite
a/an
definite
the
Articles
Use a/an when you mention a singular count for the first time or when talking about a nonspecific or general nous.

Use
a
beginning with a vowel sound(a book, a chair, a house) and semi consonants(a university, a one, a union)


There is
a
bottle on the table

I had
a
banana with lunch.


Use an beginning a vowel sound(an eraser, an orchid, an idea, an umbrella)


There is
an
orange on the table.


NOTE: plural indefinite nouns(e.g. cars, bananas, etc) do not use the article
a/an


Use the when referring to a noun that has been mentioned previously or that is easily understood from context.


I bought a book and pen yesterday.
the
book was expensive, but the pen was cheap.

"Bye Mom I am going to
the
university" (the mother knows which university her daughter goes to. Therefore(por lo tanto) the university is understood as the one she always goes to).

NOTE: do not with possessive nouns, names of streets, or with words likes breakfast, lunch, dinner supper, etc.
Infinite pronouns
A: Is this my dictionary?
B: No, your dictionary is under your book.
A: where are my keys?
B: I have mine. I have not seen.


The Roses have a mansion.
Would not you love to have a house like theirs.
I am so mad at myself

You hurt yourself, did not you?

She just burned herself and Tim is not doing anything to help her.

We should not think only of ourselves. We should try to help our friends.

The hedgehog curled itself a ball.
(el erizo se hizo un bola.)

Germany's image of itself.
(la imagen que alemania tiene de sí misma)

The system itself is to balme.
(el propio sistema tiene la culpa)

by itself, all by self = solo(sin compañia)
I do not want to leave the dog by itself(no quiero dejar a el perro solo).
The door seemed to open by itself(la puerta pareció abrirse sola)

in itsefl = en si/de por si
She passed. That in itself i quite an achievement(ella aprobó. Eso de por sí ya es todo un logro).

people today only want to enjoy themselves.
Can:
Will:
Could: past of can / possibility of can
Should: consejo en probabilidad
Would: possibility
some words
At
In
On
To
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