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"Biology Saves the World"
Transcript of "Biology Saves the World"
A Gene Therapy Approach to Curing Breast Cancer
By: Megan Glait, Lindsey Smits, Cassie Tomberlin, Nick Klejeski & Jacob Jordan
5-10% inherited from mother
85-90% from aging
Permanent mutations turn oncogenes on or turns tumor suppressors off
Allows cells to multiply uncontrollably
Inherited genetic abnormality in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (tumor suppressors is common cause
Breast tissue is especially susceptible to cancer
Estrogen causes cell replication, but if mutation exists and cell is replicated then mutation becomes more abundant (permanent)
Breast tissue binds more readily to carcinogens when not fully matured, which is in all females who have not had a full-term pregnancy
Biology of Breast Cancer
Complete or partial removal of breast tissue
Use of radiation or radioactive materials to kill cancer cells
Substance which kills cancer cells or prevents their growth
APOBEC3B-enzyme that mutates DNA
High levels in malignant breast tissue
When deactivated, number of cell mutations decreased (cause-and-effect)
TP53- gene that supresses Cancer is inactivated in cells high in APOBEC3B
When TP53 gene is damaged it inhibits the p53 protein from suppressing telomerase. Without this, telomerase upkeeps the ends of DNA, telomeres, allowing the infinite cell division of cancer cells.
To fix this, we could attach a healthy copy of p53 to Bivatuzumab which would then attach to CD44.
This would suppress the telomerase and prevent rapid cancer cell growth
Morrison, D. (2013, October 23). Closing in on Cancer. Retrieved February 13, 2015, from http://discover.umn.edu/news/health-medicine/apobec3b-enzyme-causes-mutations-breast-and-other-cancers
What Is Breast Cancer? (2013, September 26). Retrieved February 13, 2015, from http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/what_is_bc
American Cancer Society. (n.d.). Do we know what causes breast cancer? Retrieved February 13, 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-what-causes
Clark, R., Levine, R., & Snedeker, S. (2005, March 18). The Biology of Breast Cancer. Retrieved February 13, 2015, from http://envirocancer.cornell.edu/factsheet/general/fs5.biology.cfm
Cancer in the United States
Implications of Solution
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®). (2014, November 25). Retrieved November 13, 2014, from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/breast/Patient/page5
1 out of 8 women will develop invasive breast cancer in lifetime
Rates decreased after use of hormone replacement therapy stopped
For women in U.S., breast cancer death rates higher than all other cancers
About 30% of cancers in women is breast cancer
5-10% breast linked to gene mutations
Biggest risk factors are age (older) and gender (female)
U.S Breast Cancer Statistics. (September 20, 2014). Retrieved April 10, 2015, from http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics
What Causes Cancer?
Accumulation of genetic mutations affect genes involved in cell cycle regulation
Proto-oncogenes influence growth factor signal pathways --> mutated to oncogenes that result in continuous cell division
Tumor suppressor genes prevent division under improper conditions (damaged DNA ect.) --> mutated dis-enables cells ability to stop faulty replication
Uncontrolled division = initial stages of cancer
We will beat breast cancer.
CD44+CD24− is a cell marker used for identifying tumorigenic breast cells
Attach P53 protein to CD44 Antibody (8E2F3)
The antibody would then attach to the CD44 and deliver the P53 to the damaged cell
Prospective Idetification of Tumorigenic Breast Cancer Cells. (December 18, 2002). Retrieved April 10, 2015, from http://www.pnas.org/content/100/7/3983.full
CD44 Antibody (8E2F3) 0.1 ml Cell Membrane Marker. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2015, from http://www.novusbio.com/CD44-Antibody-8E2F3_NBP1-47386.html
CD44. (n.d.). Retrieved November 1, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD44
Bivatuzumab. (n.d.). Retrieved November 1, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bivatuzumab