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Islam palliative care
Transcript of Islam palliative care
The discontinuation of
nourishment is prohibited by muslims therefore sips of water should be offered until the patient becomes unconscious a moisture filled cotton swab is used to keep the patients mouth moistened
Islam views death as something predestined by God. It is the beginning of eternal life, so as healthcare professionals we should not be shocked if some muslim families appear calm and accepting of death.
Islam is against the donation of vital organs, it is believed the body has great significance whether dead or alive, it is believed to be the property of their creator and not that of man.
A peaceful environment is fostered because it is believed that a calm and familiar environment helps the patient to be at peace so that they can focus on their goodness and faith.
To physically cleanse the corpse.
Preferably within hours.
Same religion and gender.
Body is washed odd number of times
Cleaning includes removal of faeces
The men are seperate from the women
Wailing and screaming over the dead is forbidden.
Crying is permissible, no more than three days.
Islam believe it is a good thing to die in the arms of Allah, therefore the family members guide the dying patient in saying the commandments and reading the Quran
During this time it is not allowed to shout or wail because according to the prophet Mohammad, loud crying and wailing cause the deceased to suffer inner pain which will lead them to be punished in the after life. It is also forbidden to idealise the deceased as it brings punishment from the "Angels of the grave"
Muslims prefer to be in the presence of their loved ones at the time of death
The Quaran is cited until the pronunciation of death. Islam prohibits the prolonged usage of life sustaining machines and are against suicide and euthanasia.
Muslims believe that at the moment of death the patient is still able to hear and therefore respect should be shown by talking to them as though they were still alive.
A muslim patient that has just died must have their face placed in the direction of Mecca which is located roughly west - north west
The washing of the body, the funeral, prayers and burial take place within 24 hours of the death.
The eyes of deceased should be kept closed at all times,
Tubes and foreign material removed.
The mouth should be kept closed as well as the ankles
Cremation, Autopsies and post mortem examinations are prohibited
Guide in dying
The Islamic culture
Gain an understanding of the Islamic culture
To shed light on the general views and Islamic Beliefs
To analyze the Islamic views on dying
Identify Nursing strategies when caring for a Muslim patient in a palliative care setting
Islamic view on
Australia is a multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural society where we share a mutual respect for all religions. As future health care providers we are held responsible for delivering sufficient care for all people. The AMNC guidelines (2.1 - 2.7) identify the appropriate legislations for ethical Practise's within a professional Nursing
Importance of practice
The 5 Pillars of Islam
Dress and appearence
Many Muslims do not shake hands with members of the opposite sex .
Many Muslim men or women are not comfortable with someone from the opposite gender standing too close.
Some Muslim women may not make direct eye contact with members of the opposite sex out of respect and modesty
Muslim children are not expected to leave the parents to live on their own until they are married
In general Muslims coming from Turkey, India, Pakistan, South Africa and Arab countries have surnames or family names.
The muslim people from Malay coming from Malaysia, Singapore,Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, some African countries may have their fathers’ names or second names that are treated as surnames
And some Muslims from Indonesia have only single name
Dress code if it loosely covers certain parts of the body, consisting of the area from the navel to knee for the male, and the whole body with the exception of the face, hands and feet for the female
The wearing of the niqab, burka or purdah (face cover) by Muslim women is not obligatory
2. Salat (Prayer)
3. Zakah (alms giving)
4. Sawm (Fasting)
5.Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)
Health care providers should be honest and direct as lying is a great sin
clothes must be kept free of urine , faeces, vomit and blood
Allow for 5 daily prayers unless patient is not cognitive
Muslims are strongly involved with their community so expect many visitors
The body is placed in the grave without a casket, lying on its right side, and facing the Qibla. Grave markers should be raised only up to a maximum of 30 centimetres above the ground. because outwardly lavish displays are discouraged in Islam. Many times graves may even be unmarked.
The body is wrapped in a simple plain cloth called a kafan. men are wrapped 3 times and women are wrapped 5 times This is done to respect the dignity and privacy of the deceased. Some perfume may be applied to the cloth as well.
loved ones and relatives are to observe a 3-day mourning period.
receiving visitors and condolences, and avoiding decorative clothing and jewellery.
the widow of the deceased is not to remarry or interact with men directly related to her or men whom she can marry. 4 months and 10 days period of waiting
Islam dissapproves of any medical care that may hasten death even for humane reasons.
If in a coma it is preferred that the patient be turned to face Mecca
The whole body of the deceased must be covered by a sheet and handled as little as possible
The person must be handled with the utmost respect by a nurse of the same sex only
Nursing staff should not wash the deceased as this will be done as part of the Islam ritual.
After death it is important that documentation is timely and to prevent any unnecessary delay for the body to be sent to the funeral home.
• Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship: Muslims in Australia Online viewed 1st September 2013, URL: http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/pdf_doc/Muslims_in_Australia_snapshot.pdf
• Government of Western Australia Department of Local Government Office of Multicultural Interests 2012, Culture and Religion Information sheet Islam, Online viewed 10th Septbember 2013, URL: http://www.omi.wa.gov.au/resources/publications/cr_diversity/islam.pdf
• Wilson. D 1995, An introduction to Islam, Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press
• Taylor. J. E 2012, Religion a clinical guide for Nurses, Springer Publishing, New York, pp 15-26
The Declaration of Faith, which is the testimony “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah (God the Creator), and that Muhammad is His Prophet”.
Must pray five times each day, facing Mecca, the holy city in Saudi Arabia
1 Subuh or Fajr Prayer (between dawn break and sunrise)
2 Zuhur (or Dhuhur) Prayer (midday or early afternoon)
3 Asr Prayer (late afternoon before sunset)
4 Maghrib Prayer (at sunset before the evening twilight disappears);
5 Isha’ Prayer (after the twilight has disappeared until late at night).
Giving of alms and caring for the poor setting percentages of income are given to aid the impoverished. Alms which is an annual payment for those who are able—of 2.5 per cent of one’s net savings, as a sum to be spent on the poor and needy. Zakaat is said to purify the wealth of a Muslim and purify their heart from injustice, covetousness and greed.
Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting, which is observed once each year during the month of Ramadan (the ninth month of the Muslim Lunar Calendar). Fasting means abstention from food, drink and sensual pleasures from dawn to sunset, and also from all evil intentions and desires, as a means of developing a higher state of God consciousness
Every adult Muslim who is financially and physically able is expected to travel to Mecca once in his or her lifetime in the month of Dhul-Hijah. Various rituals and rites are performed during the time in Mecca.
1. Shahadah (Faith)
Islam is a religion and Muslims are the followers of Islam. It is a monotheistic religion meaning they believe in one God (Allah ). The key beliefs of Islam include
One God (Allah)
The prophets/messengers of Allah most importantly Muhammad. Muhammad was the last prophet sent by Allah in the 7th century and Allah spoke to Muhammad about guidance and salvation for this world and the next . Muhammad then dedicated the remainder of his life to spread Allah’s message and recorded his teachings the book of Qur'an.
The Books of Allah, the four main books that were revealed included Taurah, Zaboor (Psalms of David), Injeel and the Holy Qur’an.
Life after death
Divine decree and destiny
We covered Islamic culture, Islamic beliefs, the Islamic view on death and dying and the Nurse's role in caring for a Muslim patient. Our main findings were that there are over 1 billion Muslims in the world in which they believe in one god Allah, his angels, his prophets and his four sacred books of teachings. The Islamic religion consists of five pillars which include faith, prayer, alms, fasting and the Pilgrimage to Mecca.
In regards to death and dying, death is believed to be the beginning of eternal life and is predestined by god (Allah). There are many different practices around the dying process some main examples included pointing the feet up to face Allah. When the individual dies they are to be wrapped 3 times for males and five times for females and organ donation is prohibited as the body is believed to be a significant part of the afterlife.