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Transcript of Alchemy Presentation
Period 1 Today, you will learn: A quick definition of Alchemy
The history of Alchemy in Europe
Alchemy's Contributions Alchemy: As defined in Merriam Webster's dictionary: A medieval chemical science and speculative philosophy aiming to achieve the transmutation of the base metals into gold, the discovery of a universal cure for disease, and the discovery of a means of indefinitely prolonging life. Alchemy is commonly associated today with: The Philosopher's Stone, The Elixir of Life, And the Universal Cure
for all diseases. The European History of Alchemy Greco-Roman Age Islamic Age Medieval
Europe Age Renaissance to Modern Age Decline into Modern Age Greco-Roman Alchemy: - Alchemy originated in Hellenistic Egypt
- Alexandria was the epicenter of Greek alchemical knowledge
- Important people of time: Zosimos of Panopolis, Mary the Jewess
- Greco-Roman gods associated with alchemy: Isis, Osiris, Jason, and mainly Hermes Trismegistus
- Often associated with metallurgy during this time
- Most alchemists of this time, though, only went by pseudonyms.
-Khalid Ibn Yazid sparked alchemy migration from Alexandria to the Islamic world, which would lead to the translation and preservation of Greek alchemical texts in teh 8th and 9th centuries. Islamic Alchemy: Medieval Alchemy: Renaissance Alchemy to Modern Age: Alchemy's Decline: After fall of Roman Empire, Islamic world became center of Alchemy
Alchemy is derived from the Islamic word, al kimia
Jabir ibn Hayyan, AKA Gerber, is one of the most important people associated with alchemy
Gerber often recognized as the father of chemistry
Gerber also father of the elemental system used in medieval alchemy: aether, air, earth, fire, water, sulphur, and mercury
Gerber was obsessed with his ultimate goal, Takwin, the artificial creation of life, up to human life Began in 1144 with Robert of Chester's translation of the Arabic Book of the Composition of Alchemy
Words alcohol, carboy, elixir, and athanor are introduced into English
Alchemy is mixed with Christian theology as stride towards the reconciliation of faith
Much of 12th and 13th century alchemy is based on translations of previous works
14th century- alchemy becomes more accessible to people who could not speak Latin.
Dante, Piers the Ploughman, and Chaucer all thought of alchemists as liars and thieves.
Most of alchemy during time is centered around the philosopher's stone Greco-Roman ideals restored to alchemy
Humanism mixed with alchemy to refocus mankind as the alchemical vessel
Alchemy splits into many categories: medical, production of chemicals, transmutation of metals/gemstones, etc.
Alchemists of this time were contracted by the elite for practical purposes.
Rudolf II, the Holy Roman Emperor, King James IV of Scotland, Henry V, and many other kings/dukes contracted and sponsored alchemists
Age of the trend of alchemist "con-artists"
Isaac Newton was even an alchemist Decline of alchemy began as early as 17th century, when it started being replaced by the rise of modern sciences.
Although, alchemy still flourished up until around the 19th century.
18th century- The height of alchemy, famous for people such as James Price and Robert Boyle.
19th century- Sudden revival of alchemy, famous for Mary Anne Atwood and Ethan Allen Hitchcock. Their works regarded spiritual alchemy Contributions of Alchemy: Chemistry, medical sciences, metallurgy, etc.
Creation of many new words into the English language, such as alcohol
The invention of the submarine
The invention of modern medicine
Alchemy is the basis of many pieces of literature
References are made to alchemy in Act I, scene 7 of Macbeth. The End