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Jillian Linnon 13 February 2013
Transcript of Erie Indians
Andrew Reed American Indians Lifeways: Erie Location Hunting and Gathering ? The Cat Nation Foraging Included American Chestnut, Thistles and Varieties of Native Squash Wildlife and Available Game: Erie is an abreviation of Erielhonan meaning "long tail" Population : 4,ooo-15,000 at height
1. Kentaientonga (Gentaguehronon, Gentaienton, Gentaguetehronnon)
2. Honniasont (Black Minqua, Honniasontkeronon, Oniassontke)
3. Rigué (Arrigahaga, Rigueronnon, Rique, Riquehronnon). Surviving Village/Division Information: Typical Village: established permanent villages in conjunction with seasonal subsistence
high surrounding walls
shared long houses for multiple families
designated work areas for breakdown/preparation of animal and plant products
lack designated men's areas Kinship and Government: matrilineal or matrilineal patrilines
village life run by women and older men
young men belonged in the forest and on the water
Government may have broken down like Iroquois because of trade
Iroquois attacking other nations created a slave-like class in Erie society European Contact:
The Jesuit Relation mentioned briefly in conflicts with other nations and outlining territory periodically between 1639-1656 Women were in charge of gathering fruits and nuts
Hunted with bow and poisned arrows, knives, and hatchets
Lived in animal skin shelters during hunting trips
•Canoes and snowshoes were used for travel
Caught fish with bone hooks, spears, and weighted nets Conflict: Disappearance: Practiced warfare with surrounding tribes. (Algonquin, Iroquois)
Known as fierce warriors.
Involved in wars with the in late 1500's - early 1600's that lead to downfall.
1630's-Western Villages: Conflict with Algonquin may have occurred as a result of overlapping beaver hunting territories. (early 1600's)
1651- Iroquois Conflicts Begin
Demanded refugees being harbored by Erie.
After years of skirmishes/raids a peace conference was held. Spring and summer was the time for hunting and fishing, as well as foraging, when wild foods become ripe
•Trade generally occurred during summer months
Fall was time for harvesting and processing fruits, nuts and other foods for use during late winter and early spring
Following the harvest they would embark on a winter hunt Works Cited
Axtell, Fred (Dancing Owl), and Taylor-True, Victoria. “Names/Sub-Tribes”. 2009. Erie Indian Moundbuilders. 23 Jan. 2013. Tribal Nation. <www.eriemoundbuilders.com/names_subtribes/ >
Brose, David S., Cowan, C. Wesley, and Mainfort Jr., Robert C. ed. Societies in Eclipse: Archaeology of the Eastern Woodland Indians A.D. 1400-1700. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001.
“Erie Indian Tribe History”. Access Genealogy. Jan. 2013. Webified Development. 23 Jan. 2013. <www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/iroquioi/iroquoishist.htm>
Kelly, Darlene E, (2000). Historical Collections of Ohio. "The Cat Nation"-Ohio's Erie Indians. www.genrecords.net/emailregistry/vols/00026.html#0006374
“Recorded History: Erie Indians”. NOACA. 2011. The Northeast Ohio Areawide Coodinating Agency. 23 Jan. 2013. <www.noaca.org/REC.HTML>
Sultzman, Lee. “Erie History”. Dickshovel.com. 23 Jan. 2013. <www.dickshovel.com/erie.html> Peace conference should have ensured survival of Erie, but they turned sour.
All 30 Erie delegates were killed after an Erie killed an Iroquois in an argument.
The Iroquois made peace with the French, then set about destroying the Erie.
Erie lack of firearms was a serious disadvantage and major contributor to their demise.
1656- Erie finally defeated.
Most Erie survivors incorporated into the Seneca.
1680's- Iroquois still tracking down remnants of the Erie tribe. (western Pa.)
May have hidden on the Lake Erie islands
1720's- Erie descendants in the Seneca returned to Ohio Valley and became known as the Mingos
Later displaced by US government to reservations in Oklahoma (1840's) Fish