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Copy of Unit 31 Fashion Retailing
Transcript of Copy of Unit 31 Fashion Retailing
Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done
The first fashion designer who was not just a dressmaker was Charles Frederick Worth (1826–1895). Before the former draper set up his maison de couture (fashion house) in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, and high fashion descended from styles worn at royal courts.
Dress designed by Charles Frederick Worth
Painting by George Barbier
Around the start of the 20th century fashion style magazines began to include photographs and became even more influential than in the future. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste
Haute couture (French) meaning ‘High fashion’ – clothing made to measure
Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter is the term for factory-made clothing
Throughout the early 20th century, practically all high fashion originated in Paris and to a lesser extent London. Fashion magazines from other countries sent editors to the Paris fashion shows. Department stores sent buyers to the Paris shows, where they purchased garments to copy
1st World War – more functional clothing for women, darker colours
Soon after the First World War, a radical change came about in fashion. Bouffant coiffures gave way to short bobs, dresses with long trains gave way to above-the-knee pinafores. Corsets were abandoned and women borrowed their clothes from the male wardrobe and chose to dress like boys
The period between the two World Wars, often considered to be the Golden Age of French fashion, was one of great change and reformation. Carriages were replaced by cars, princes and princesses lost their crowns, and haute couture found new clients in the ranks of film actresses, American heiresses, and the wives and daughters of wealthy industrialists.
Actress Lousie Brookes
Other influential designers of the time include Jean Patou – who’s clothing was promoted by film stars and famous sports people of the time.
As with today’s fashions, the designers of the time were influenced by trends in music, art and popular culture.
The great couturière Coco Chanel was a major figure in fashion at the time, as much for her magnetic personality as for her chic and progressive designs. Chanel helped popularize the bob hairstyle, the little black dress, and the use of jersey knit for women's clothing and also elevated the status of both costume jewellery and knitwear.
Christian Dior outfit, 1947
Fred Astaire and Rita Hayworth
Paris was no longer the centre of the fashion industry. There was a greater influence from New York, and Hollywood.
As the cinema became more popular there was an increasingly big demand for outfits similar to those worn by the stars of the day.
Following the second world war mass-manufactured fashions became increasingly popular. Society became richer, younger generations could afford new clothing and a range of retailers appeared on the high street to meet this demand.
1940’s – 1950’s
For perhaps the first time in history, there was an independent youth fashion that was not based on the conventions of an older age group. In the 1960s fashion became just as much a statement of personal freedom.
During the 60’s there was a great diversity in fashion, and there was no longer one overall trend in clothing design as there had been before.
Punk music became popular towards the end of the decade. Designers like Vivienne Westwood created controversial styles of clothing
The civil rights movement in America, together with the success of soul music had a big influence on designers. The style of the counterculture that had started in the 60’s was adopted by the mainstream retailers.
History of Fashion
Leg Warmers - were not just for exercising in the 80s. These were actually worn as a fashion item! Usually in conjunction with a short mini skirt.
Acid Wash Jeans - were jeans that were soaked in chlorine or some other product that removed the top layer of blue denim and left the jeans looking white with blue undertones. If you were really cool in the 80s you wore the matching acid washed denim coat to match the jeans. In 80s fashion, you could not have too much denim!
Jellies - were shoes made out of PVC plastic that, for some reason, were very popular in the 80s. The shoes were transparent and shiny (hence the Jelly name) and usually had some kind of glitter on them. You could usually pick up a pair of these "high quality" shoes for about a dollar!
Shoulder Pads - were not just worn by football players. Women went for the square shouldered look by putting shoulder pads in their outfits. Because, you know, what woman would not want to look like a football player? This form of 80s fashion showed up often on the night time soaps like Dynasty.
In the 80’s music had a big influence in the change of fashion. Style icons such as Madonna influenced fishnet stocking and short skirts. Also movies such as Fame and Flash dance influence leg warmers, looser clothes and bold colours. Hip-Hop culture and Rap music also began influencing wider fashion trends, such as track suits Kangol hats, including oversized gold jewellery on men and women. Brand names that came very popular were Ralph Lauren and Calvin Klein.
Fashion of the 1990s has been quoted as “The decade fashion has forgotten.” The late 1980s fashion trends carried over into the new decade, as women continued to wear aerobic leggings and stir-ups in bright florescent colors, blue jeans with matching denim jackets in acid wash, baby doll dresses, over sized t-shirts, sweatshirts and sweaters, with slouch socks over high-tops trainers. The 1960s and 1970s styles were revived in the mid-90s with fashion taking on hippie style floral dresses, flowered floor length skirts, lace blouses, Gypsy tops and wedge heeled shoes.
At the same time mainstream fashion looked back to previous decades for inspiration, another alternative trend developed. In the middle of the decade, with the influence of rock band Nirvana and their lead singer, the iconic Kurt Cobain and his wife Courtney Love, the new grunge era began. Cobain and Love were the antithesis of conservative and inspired fashion trends to adopt what is known as the 90’s grunge.
The fashion trend that dominated 2000-2009 is “Boho-chic”. Boho-chic is a combination of nontraditional, eclectic styles influenced by gypsies, hippies, and artistic clothing of the 1960s and 1970s.
Boho-chic was first donned by actress Sienna Miller and model Kate Moss at the Glastonbury Festival in the U.K., in 2004
The 2000s are often described as a "mash-up" decade where trends saw the fusion of previous styles, global and ethnic clothing, as well as the fashions of numerous music-based subcultures, especially indie pop. Many in the industry have noted the lack of divide between the 1990s and early 2000s due to the continued popularity of minimalist fashion among young people of both sexes.For the most part, the mid-late 2000s did not have one particular style but recycled vintage clothing styles from the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s and 1980s.