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Mini conference AK c-c
Transcript of Mini conference AK c-c
specific behaviour (Bandura 1982) People may not be aware of the negative consequences of their energy-intensive lifestyles. All the energy saved in switching off your charger for one day is used up in one second of car-driving (MacKay 2009). There may be a tendency to overestimate one's contribution to mitigating climate change. Energy consumption in the UK has continued to rise in recent years In the UK, a study by the BBC in 2004 revealed that 54% of the public believed that “changing their own behavior would not have any impact on climate change” (Ockwell, et al., 2009). People are confused about which actions are most effective. 1. 2. 3. 51% of the total energy use of the UK is due to individual energy consumption
(Lorenzoni 2007). “turning out lights when leaving the room” is often suggested as a way to save energy, but it actually saves very little (MacKay 2009). 1. 2. Which actions are most effective?
Which actions are people taking?
How well do these align? 3. efficacy
& outcome expectancy social dilemma behaviours Climate change mitigation -
Understanding which sustainable behaviours the public carries out and why Alexia Koletsou & Dr. Rebecca Mancy - School of Education Background 1. - Our ability to effectively mitigate climate change relies on a combination of developments in science, technology and their application.
- The engagement of individuals with these developments is required in order to ensure that they are accepted and employed to best effect (Whitmarsh & Lorenzoni 2010).
- In order to meet carbon reduction targets, there is a need to identify strategies to encourage positive behaviours at individual and collective levels (Moser 2006). Problems 2. - The UK public is regularly exposed to messages about climate change. As a result, people have become more aware of climate change. However, the UK public is taking little action (Ockwell, et al., 2009).
Our aim is to understand the conditions under which people participate in "cooperative" climate change mitigation behaviours. - A survey by the University of East Anglia found that although 91% of respondents thought that the climate is changing, most respondents did NOT think individuals have the main responsibility (Poortinga, et al., 2006). Previous research has tried to investigate conditions that encourage cooperating behaviour (Milinski, et al., 2006), but work is underdeveloped in the context of climate change:
focuses on individuals who are already engaged in special interest groups, but most of us are not!
often lacks a strong theoretical basis.
fails to effectively combine the science with the social science. Importance of this project 3. This project 4. This project uses three carefully-selected frameworks to determine how to effectively communicate climate change mitigation actions to the public.
Efficacy (Bandura 1982): as much research has shown this to be necessary for behavioural change.
Social dilemmas: as it helps us to understand why choosing not to participate in climate change mitigation seems like such a sensible choice
Effectiveness of actions: because focusing on actions that make the most difference makes the best use of resources (e.g. Whitmarsh 2009). online questionnaire 500 participants UK representative sample Communication Trust Identifiability Group size Group identity Social dilemmas are situations in which personal & collective interests are in direct conflict. Each individual benefits more by pursuing a selfish individual choice.
Collectively individuals will be better off if all choose to cooperate. Communication among participants results in higher levels of cooperation Seeing oneself as part of a "group" - even a randomly assigned one! - leads to higher levels of cooperation single & autonomous sharing membership Higher levels of cooperation are achieved when people trust others to cooperate Repeated engagement when individuals are identifiable leads to higher cooperation People cooperate less in larger groups than in smaller ones. vs. 1. 2. "The Tragedy of the Commons," Garrett Hardin (1968) and efficacy outcome expectancy People’s beliefs about the likely consequences of their action (Bandura 1986) But climate change is a large scale problem and large collective action is needed However.. within a collective problem people can have collective goals (e.g. save the planet) and/or individual goals (e.g. save money) in my questionnaire in my questionnaire theory theory theory in my questionnaire The Short List: The Most Effective Actions U.S. Households Can Take to Curb Climate Change
(Gardner & Stern 2008) Install a more efficient central heating boiler (92% efficient, e.g. condensing boiler)
save £150 and 2.9% CO2 emissions Turn down thermostat from 22°C to 20°C during the day and to 18°C during the night
save £55 and 2.3% CO2 emissions Buy a more efficient car (30.7 MPG* vs. 20 MPG) – *Miles Per Gallon
save £396 and 13.5% CO2 emissions my results so far!