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Erik Hellmer

on 15 September 2017

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Transcript of Ecology

The basics
All living things are made of
Prokaryotic cells (bacteria)
Eukaryotic (PAFP)
a set of individual organisms that can mate and produce
Best guess 10-14 million species (half live in Tropical Rain Forests)

Earth's Life Support System
Four Major Components
Atmosphere (air)
Hydrosphere (water)
Geosphere (rock, soil, sediment)

Three Factors Sustain Life on Earth
Solar Energy
immense nuclear fusion reactor
hydrogen nuclei fuse to form larger helium nuclei
this releases tremendous amounts of energy
lil' bit reaches earth as visible light, UV radiation, and heat (infrared radiation)
Ecologists Study Connections in Nature
Ecology: Greek "oikos"(place to live) and "logas" (study of)
study of connections in nature
how organisms interact with biotic and abiotic environment (soil, water, matter, energy mostly from sun)
Levels of Organization
One way flow of high quality energy from the sun
through living things by feeding
into the environment as low quality energy (heat)
heat to space
Why is it one way?

Cycling of Matter or Nutrients
through parts of the biosphere
can take from seconds to centuries to complete the round trip
Why must they be recycled?
Ecologists focus on
the biosphere
Same species, same space, same time
a school of glassfish in the red sea
Genetic Diversity
Individuals vary slightly in genetic makeup
Do not all look/act the same

Where an individual or population normally lives
Scale: as large as the ocean, or as small as the intestine of a termite
Each has certain
environmental conditions
its organisms need
water, soil, temperature, light
Biological Community
all the populations in a particular place
catfish share a pond with other fish, plants, insects, ducks, and others
A community of different species interacting with one another and their nonliving environment
Scale: From a puddle to an ocean or a patch of woods to a forest
Some are Artificial
crop fields, tree farms, and reservoirs
Boardman Tree Farm in Oregon, USA
compare the levels of ecological organization

are not always clearly defined and can overlap
Matter and energy can move from one to another
migration, rivers ,erosion
The Biosphere
The parts of the earth's air, water, and soil where life is found
The Global Ecosystem
" in which all organisms exist and interact
The goal of ecology is to understand the interactions in this thin layer of air, water, soil, and organisms
allows the planet to hold on to its atmosphere
helps enable the movement and cycling of chemicals through air water, soil, and organisms
What Happens to the Energy?
Much absorbed or reflected back by the atmosphere, clouds, and surface
Ozone (03) in the lower stratosphere absorbes 95% of UV radiation (critical for life)
Only 1% reaches the surface
99% of solar energy that reaches producers (algae, some bacteria, and plants) is reflected or passes through
1% of energy that reaches producers is captured by photosynthesis
What it does
Energy that reaches the atmosphere lights the earth during the day, warms air, evaporates and cycles water, generates wind

What Happens to Energy
in an Ecosystem?
Energy flows through ecosystems in food chains and webs
As energy flows through ecosystems in food chains and webs, the amount of chemical energy available to organisms at each succeeding feeding level decreases.
Central Concepts
Energy Flow
Usable Energy Decreases
Some Ecosystems Produce Plant Matter Faster Than Others
Major Components of
Central Concepts
Ecosystems contain living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components
Some organisms produce the nutrients they need, others get their nutrients by consuming other organisms, and some recycle nutrients back to producers by decomposing the wastes and remains of organisms
Living and Nonliving Components
solar energy
living and once living
dead organisms
dead parts of organisms
waste products of organisms
Range of Tolerance
different species and populations thrive under different physical and chemical conditions
each population in an ecosysytem has a range of tolerance to variations in its physical and chemical environment
individuals in a population also vary in tolerance due to genetic diversity within
Limiting Factor Principle
A variety of abiotic factors can affect the number of organisms in a population
Limiting Factors are the factors that are most important in regulating population growth
On land- rain, soil nutrients, temperature
Aquatic- temperature, sunlight, nutrient availability, dissolved O2, salinity
Producers and Consumers
Producers (autrotrophs)
Capturing sunlight to produce energy rich carbohydrates (like glucose c6h12o6)
Hundreds of chemical reactions
Overal Reaction
6 CO2 + 6H2O + Solar Energy ->C6H12O6 +6H20

Bacteria living around deep sea hydrothermal (hot water) vents
Full transcript