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Transcript of Renaissance
Renaissance Live Museum
Medicine previously thought of having a balance in ones natural state.
In the Renaissance it evolved into more scientific thinking.
Human anatomy was greatly improved.
"The Fabrication of the Human Body."- Andreas Vesalius (Founder of human anatomy)
Included detailed drawings of the human body
Leonardo Da Vinchis drawing of a human fetus in his mother's womb.
A lot of medical research was put into microscopic organisms after the discovery of cells and bacteria.
Fracastoro hypothesized diseases had their own germ and were spread through some sort of contact.
Edmund Spenser - “The Faerie Queene”
William Shakespeare - regarded as the greatest writer in the English language.
Thomas Wyatt - credited with the introduction of the sonnet into English.
Christopher Marlowe - famous Elizabethan tragedian. “Hero and Leander” “Edward the Second” “The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus”
Ben Jonson - popularised the comedy of humours and satirical plays. “Every Man in His Humour” “Volpone, or The Foxe” “The Alchemist” “Bartholomew Fayre: A Comedy”
Hobbies and Games
Games like bowling and tennis were formed.
People played with balls made of animal bladders, cloth and wood.
Hobby horses, dolls, and toy soldiers were made from clay and wood
Children had small wooden "play" swords.
William Byrd - Created the Tudor consort and keyboard fantasia. He also raised the consort song, the church anthem and the Anglican service setting to new heights. He also succeeded in cultivating secular vocal music in an impressive variety of forms
Thomas Tallis - church music
Josquin Des Prez - polyphonic vocal music
Pierre de La Rue - polyphonic vocal music
Claudio Monteverdi - revolutionary work that marked the transition of the baroque period
Giovanni Gabrieli - sacred vocal and instrumental music
the mass - sacred musical composition, sets the liturgy to music
the motet - a number of highly varied choral musical compositions
the madrigale spirituale - secular vocal choral piece with a sacred text rather than a secular text.
Social Dance in the Renaissance fell into two categories:
Did not require dance experience.
Included an unlimited number of participants.
Dancers danced in circles, lines, or columns.
Required dance experience.
Technique focused on footwork, with the arms doing little to nothing, and an emphatic energy. Steps included walking steps, cutting steps, sliding and stamping of the feet, leaping and jumping, and hopping.
Dances were designed for music in triple a duple meter.
Dances were designed to be viewed by an audience from the front, the sides, or above the dance floor.
Galliard - combined patterns of steps that occupied more than one measure of music.
Clothing in the Renaissance was about showing off one's social status.
Clothing was one of the main ways that the wealthy displayed their wealth
The wealthy displayed their wealth by wearing expensive fabrics such as silk, brocade, velvet, and cotton
Furs were also popular among those who could afford them, and oftentimes furs were used by the wealthy as lining on the inside of their garments.
Darker colors were the fashion as elaborate embroidery and jewels were often sewn into the fabrics, and dark colors were able to show those features off more.
The lower classes wore simpler garments than the wealthy
though often trying to imitate the style of the wealthy
Wide sleeved chemises and tight bodices were common
"slashing" was created by the common class because clothing was such a status symbol, the ruling class at one time established a rule that only the wealthy could wear multiple colors of clothes, peasants and common people were only allowed to wear one color. People rebelled against it people would take their shirts and slash long holes in them and wear them on top of a another shirt, puffing it out through the holes of the first.
Women's style was extravagant and multi-layered.
A wealthy woman's attire would often have at least five layers (a skirt, underskirt, bodice, over-bodice or vest, hoop and collar are standard pieces to women's wear).
One reason for the layers was simply that layers was a status symbol. The more clothes you were wearing, the wealthier you probably were.
One popular fashion was the "Spanish Farthingale" which was a long cone shaped hoop skirt that women would wear with a corset to complete the cone shape.
Men's fashions were centered around a "square" silhouette that was achieved by widening the shoulders on vests and coats and padding them.
Padding was often made of horsehair.
On their legs they wore padded breeches and hosiery with square toed shoes.
Very wide sleeves are also an easily recognizable Renaissance fashion, and in men's clothes sleeves often had long vertical slashes down them with another layer of fabric puffing out through them to create the "slashing" technique and style.
No outfit was complete without headwear in the Renaissance.
Women had a variety of headdresses, including the "Pointed Cone" style that played to the cone fashion for women, as well as lace trimmed veils and various headdress, such as the popular French Hood style.
The Renaissance was the rebirth of learning
Scholars became more interested in the humanist features (secular)
Humanist educators found their models of literary style in the classics.
The Renaissance was a particularly powerful in most notably in art, literature, and architecture.
Humanist educators designed teaching methods to prepare well-rounded, liberally educated persons.
For example- Erasmus believed that understanding and conversing about the meaning of literature was more important than memorizing it
The invention of the printing press made books more widely available and increased literacy rates.
school attendance did not increase greatly during the Renaissance.
Elementary schools educated middle-class children while lower-class children received little, if any, formal schooling.
Children of the nobility and upper classes attended humanist secondary schools.
Educational opportunities for women improved slightly
Some girls from wealthy families attended schools of the royal court or received private lessons at home.
The curriculum studied by young women was still based on the belief that only certain subjects, such as art, music, needlework, dancing, and poetry, were suited for females.
For working-class girls, especially rural peasants, education was still limited to training in household duties such as cooking and sewing.
soup or mush for food just about every meal
the soup would be made of scraps of food, usually vegetables such as carrots or eggs.
Mush was made from some kind of grain like oats or wheat and then cooked in water = today’s oatmeal
Foods of the Merchants and Nobles
they ate soups and broths, but these soups were spiced with exotic spices and often sweetened with sugar.
The rich also ate more meat.
They would have large roasts of beef, stag, or pig.
they would eat large game birds like swans, peacocks, or cranes.
After cleaning and cooking the birds, they would often reattach the feathers for decoration.
mutton, chicken, pheasant, venison, rabbit, turkey, and ham.
For dessert, which was often called the "Fruit course", there would be fruit, jellies, nuts, and cheese.
What did they drink?
wine or beer (also called ale).
Wine was the most popular in Italy and France, while ale was big in the northern areas like Germany and England.
What did they eat with?
Most people ate with their hands and maybe a knife.
Forks did start to become popular with the wealthy during this time.
Usually a fork would just have two prongs and would be used for skewering pieces of meat.
During the Renaissance period kings, dukes, earls and other nobles dominated politics
feudal system began to collapse, titles began to hold less meaning.
it was in this situation that the arts and the Renaissance in general thrived as the landowners and businessmen often had more power than the ruler.
The Republican Idea
social pressure built up between the high-class families and the lower class
The Tudor dynasty in England
was established at the end of the War of the Roses
This war was between two rival house in Britain, the house of Lancaster and the house of York.
During that period many kings reigned for short periods but at the Battle of Bosworth fields (1485) the war was ended placing a new dynasty on the throne, the house of Tudor.
The first king Henry VII and his son, the well known Henry VIII succeeded him in 1509
Philosophy and Religion - new philosophies, role of religion
• Thomas More - developed the idea of Utopia with his novel Utopia written in Latin. This novel started a literary genre, Utopian and Dystopian fiction ,which is based upon ideal or perfect societies and cities, or their opposite.
• Francis Bacon – Attorney General and Lord Chancellor. Released New Atlantis in 1627. This was his ideal land where “generosity and enlightenment, dignity and splendor, piety and public spirit” were the commonly held qualities of the inhabitants of Bensalem. The name “Bensalem’ means “Son of Peace” which was a purposeful resemblance of “Bethlehem” and is referred to as “God’s bosom, a land unknown” in the work.
• Before the Renaissance the Catholic Church was the undisputed dominant force of order in most states of Europe.
• As the Renaissance started to blossom, the church was still the center of life and a refuge from the horrors of war and plague.
• However, as the Renaissance was re-awakening, it was also a rebirth of thought. Various people began taking up their own views and opinions of the world and began questioning the church and the Pope. The Rise of Humanism, the invention of the Printing Press, the awareness of corruption in the church, and the work of individual Reformers all contributed to the weakening of the church’s influence.
Attitudes, values, and beliefs of the period
Humanism is the term generally applied to the predominant social philosophy and intellectual and literary currents of the period from 1400 to 1650.
The philosophy of secularism, the appreciation of worldly pleasures, and the assertion of personal independence and individual expression become very important.
Expansion of trade, growth of prosperity and luxury, and widening social contacts generated interest in worldly pleasures, in spite of formal allegiance to ascetic Christian doctrine.
The humanists welcomed classical writers who revealed similar social values and secular attitudes, contributing to the overall shift to humanism.
Art - painter, sculptors, etc.
• Leonardo da Vinci
• Nicholas Hilliard
• Isaac Oliver
• Landscape art
Mona Lisa by Leonardo DaVinci
Queen Elizabeth I by Nicholas Hilliard
Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert or Cherbury by Isaac Oliver
Stylistically, the architecture started out as a gothic style and then lead to Baroque.
Architcts of this time were considered artists rather than contruction workers.
Most Renaissance buildings were symmetrical and square.
There was a big attention to details and the facade was the most important part of the building.
Churches (as shown) were symmetric around the center isle.
Domes, columns, and pillars were common in buildings
Fillipo Brunelleschi- One of the first architects of the period.
Used variety of Roman ideas, proportions in building and was thought to design buildings of harmony.
Villas made a comeback in the Rennaisance
Villas were built away from the city, which gave architects more possibilities for design.
Villas occupied a massive amount of land (200-300 acres)
Rebirth of sciences with addition of printing press.
Astronomy- Copenicus hypothesized the Earth revolves around the sun. Also spent most of his life trying to prove the idea of heliocentrism.
Invention of telescope by Hans Lippersley improved work area for astronomy
The Scientific method was developed in the Renaissance and used constantly in experiments by Galileo.
Inventions included the microscope, telescope, flushing toilet, mechanical clock, the wrench and screwdriver, wallpaper and the submarine
Hundred Year War
War of Roses
War of Religion
Black Death-killed over 40% of population in England.
Leoarndo Da Vinci's birth- January 1, 1452.
Christopher Columbus sailed to America
Henry the VIII divorced with Catherine
For aristocrats, sports helped create an ideal gentleman with a sound body and mind
Peasants used sports for social purposes to create a strong sense of community
Tournaments were a popular sporting event and included jousting, sword duels, and dagger fights
Fencing and archery were popular combat sports
Individual sports included golf, court tennis, swimming, throwing, jumping, wrestling, and various bowling games
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