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Crohn's Disease

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Stephanie Gonzalez

on 1 August 2013

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Transcript of Crohn's Disease

Crohn's Disease
Signs and Symptoms
Causes
Abdominal pain
Diarrhea
Mouth sores
Weight loss
Blood in stool
Ulcers
Arthritis
What is Crohn's Disease?
Crohn’s disease is a type of bowel disease that affects the intestines.
It causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
This disease can affect any area or GI tract; most commonly affects the end of the small intestine (Ileum) or the beginning of large intestine (colon)
The disease is named after Dr. Burrill B.Crohn.
There are many theories behind the causes of this disease, although none have been proven.
One of which is that the body’s immune system reacts to a virus or bacterium which then causes inflammation in intestines. The immune system mistakes microbes that are normally found in the intestines, for foreign substances. It then sends WBC into the lining of the intestines, where they produce chronic inflammation.
Other causes can be abnormalities of the digestive system, or a combination of three factors, such as immune system inefficiencies, genetics and environmental factors.
Chloe Tamargo
Sandra Ellington
Stephanie Gonzalez

Types of Crohn's Disease
Ileocolitis: is the most common type of Crohn's disease. It affects the small intestine, known as the ileum, and the colon. Those who have ileocolitis have weight loss, diarrhea, and cramping in the middle or lower right part of the abdomen.

Ileitis: It affects the ileum. In addition to the symptoms described above, fistulas, (inflammatory abscesses), may form in the lower right section of the abdomen.
Inflammation in the liver
Nausea
Tears in the anus
Bowel blockage
Fever
Vomiting
Poor appetite
Anemia
Types of Crohn's Disease
Gastroduodenal Crohn's disease: Involves the stomach and duodenum. People with this type of Crohn's disease suffer nausea, weight loss, and loss of appetite. In addition, if the narrow segments of bowel are obstructed, they experience vomiting.

Jejunoileitis: It affects the jejunum. It causes areas of inflammation. Symptoms include cramps after meals, the formation of fistulas, diarrhea, and abdominal pain that can become intense.

Crohn's (granulomatous) colitis: Involves only the colon. Symptoms include skin lesions, joint pains, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and the formation of ulcers, fistulas, and abscesses around the anus
Diagnosis
There is no specific diagnostic test to determine if one has Crohn’s disease.

Many of it’s symptoms are similar to the symptoms of other health issues so the doctor will diagnose the disease based on medical history, physical examination, lab tests, imaging tests and endoscopy results.
Lab tests
Lab tests may be requested by your doctor in order to rule out other causes and determine if Crohn’s disease is present. The lab tests may include:

blood protein levels
blood sedimentation rate
body mineral levels
red blood cell count
white blood cell count
stool samples to check for blood or infectious microbes

These tests can check for signs of inflammation, infection, internal bleeding, and low levels of substances such as iron, protein, or minerals.
Imaging Tests
X-rays and other images can help identify the severity and location of Crohn’s disease
These types of tests include:
barium X-rays and other X-rays
CT scans
colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy
video capsule endoscopy
Prevention/Treatment
Crohn’s disease can not be definitively prevented because the cause is unknown but there are a few steps people can take to reduce the severity of the disease.
Reducing stress on digestive tract by having small frequent meals
Low fiber well balanced diet
Regular exercise
Eating ripe bananas, apples, curd, and pureed vegetables, they help to maintain optimum intestinal flora.
Stress can worsen the symptoms of Crohn’s disease, relaxation techniques such as yoga, meditation,and slow breathing may also be helpful.
Treatment
There is no cure for Crohn’s disease but there are medications to relieve symptoms such as controlling the inflammation that triggers symptoms and achieve and maintain remission.
There are 5 categories of prescription medication to treat Crohn’s:
Antibiotics
Aminosalicylates (5-ASAs)
Corticosteroids
Immune modifiers (immunomodulators)
Biologic therapies (biologics)

Depending on the disease symptoms the doctor may also recommend over the counter treatment such as:
Antidiarrheals
Pain relievers
Nutritional supplements
Treatment
People with Crohn's may require surgery at some point to clear an intestinal blockage, repair damage to the intestines, or treat symptoms that may not have been controlled.
Prognosis
Prognosis is a medical term for predicting the likely outcome of one's current standing.
The outlook for Crohn's disease varies widely. Crohn's disease can range from being benign or it can be very severe.
About 13 - 20% of patients experience chronic Crohn’s disease.
Crohn's disease is rarely a direct cause of death, and most people can live a normal lifespan with this condition.
Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of disease origin and spread.

In the United States:
An analysis of health insurance claims database estimated the prevalence of Crohn's disease among US children and adults in 2003-2004 to be 201 cases per 100,000 (0.2%) persons among adults and 43 per 100,000 (0.043%) among children.
Epidemiology: Recorded Rates
The highest annual incidence figures were 20.2 per 100,000 person/years in North America, 12.7 per 100,000 person/years in Europe, and 5.0 per 100,000 person/years in Asia and the Middle East.

The lowest recorded rates of new cases appear to be in South Africa (0.3-2.6 cases per 100,000 persons) and Latin America (0-0.03 cases per 100,000 persons).
Age-related Demographics
The age of onset of Crohn's disease has two peaks. The first peak occurs between the ages of 15 and 30 years (late adolescence and early adulthood), and the second occurs mainly in women between the ages of 60 and 70 years. However, most cases begin before age 30 years, and approximately 20-30% of all patients with Crohn's disease are diagnosed before age 20 years.
This chart shows the age distribution in pediatrics for Crohn’s Disease (in red). As shown, Crohn's disease becomes more frequent as children get progress into their teen and adult years.
(Source: The New Zealand Medical Journal 121.1283)
Gender-Related Demographics
In general, the frequency of Crohn’s Disease is similar in males and females, with some slight female predominance.

The rate of Crohn's disease is 1.1-1.8 times higher in women than in men. This pattern is reversed with pediatric Crohn’s Disease.
Shannen Doherty is a famous actress with Crohn’s Disease.
The History of Crohn's Disease
Crohn’s disease is named after an American gastroenterologist, Dr. Burrill B. Crohn. In 1930, he pointed out similar findings in two patients whom he was treating.
On May 13, 1932, Dr. Crohn and his colleagues, presented a paper on “Terminal Ileitis”, describing the features of Crohn’s disease to the American Medical Association.
It is because of alphabetical order rather than contribution that Crohn's name appeared as the first author, and the disease came to be known as Crohn's disease.
Quiz
1. What is the most common type of Crohn’s Disease?
a. Bruno-itis
b. Jejunoilitis
c. Ileocolitis
d. Crohn’s colitis
2. What group of people have the highest incidence rates of Crohn’s Disease?
a. Latin Americans
b. Africans
c. Europeans
d. North Americans
Quiz Answers
5. True or
False
: Crohn’s Disease can be diagnosed with just one test.
3. When is the most common age range for Crohn's disease detection?
a. Infancy (0-2 years)
b. Late Teens to Early adulthood (15-30 years)
c. Late adulthood (55-70 years)
d. There is no age range, you can get it anytime!
4. Which of the following are common symptoms of Crohn's Disease?
a. Abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea
b. Hair loss, amnesia, and runny nose
c. Sore throat, numbness, and verbal diarrhea.
d. Chest pain, tachycardia, and weight gain.
1. What is the most common type of Crohn’s Disease?
a. Bruno-itis
b. Jejunoilitis
c. Ileocolitis
d. Crohn’s colitis
2. What group of people have the highest incidence rates of Crohn’s Disease?
a. Latin Americans
b. Africans
c. Europeans
d. North Americans
3. When is the most common age range for Crohn's disease detection?
a. Infancy (0-2 years)
b. Late Teens to Early adulthood (15-30 years)
c. Late adulthood (55-70 years)
d. There is no age range, you can get it anytime!
4. Which of the following are common symptoms of Crohn's Disease?
a. Abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea
b. Hair loss, amnesia, and runny nose
c. Sore throat, numbness, and verbal diarrhea
d. Chest pain, tachycardia, and weight gain
5. True or False: Crohn’s Disease can be diagnosed with just one test
Works Cited


"Crohn's & Colitis." CCFA: What Is Crohn's Disease. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

"Crohn's Disease Treatment: Common Medications for Treating Crohn's." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

"Health Guide." Crohn's Disease. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.

Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Definition." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 09 Aug. 2011. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.
Full transcript