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Cell Organelles, Bio 9

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Transcript of Cell Organelles, Bio 9

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_mito.html
CITATIONS
http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0005975.html
Endoplasmic reticulum is surrounded by a membrane in the
cell tunnel system
.
It is an important part of the cells. It is a continuous membrane, also can be divided into:
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Structure
Type sliding surface endoplasmic reticulum is also known as the granularity of endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes. the shape of slide surface endoplasmic reticulum are basically small branch pipe and follicles, sometimes small tube is arranged very closely, in the form of concentric circles around the secretory granules and mitochondria. Type sliding surface endoplasmic reticulum in cross section, therefore, see the form, type and rough surface endoplasmic reticulum are significantly different.
Functions
The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum can be summarized as the synthesis and export of proteins and membrane lipids, but varies between ER and cell type and cell function. The quantity of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a cell can slowly interchange from one type to the other, depending on the changing metabolic activities of the cell. Transformation can include embedding of new proteins in membrane as well as structural changes. Changes in protein content may occur without noticeable structural changes
The smooth ER of various cell types functions in a variety of metabolic processes. The smooth ER are important in the synthesis of
lipids
, including
oils
,
phospholipids
, and
steroids
.
Also our liver cells also have large mounts of smooth ER with other important functions. Certain enzymes in the smooth ER of liver cells help
process drugs
,
alcohol
, and other
potentially harmful substances
.
Smooth ER has yet another function, the storage of calciumions. In muscle cells, for example, a specialized smooth ER membrane pumps calcium ions into the interior of the ER.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Structure VS. Function
Chloroplasts
Cell Organelles, Bio 9
Structure
The cell's nucleus is bound by a double membrain called the nuclear envolope. This membrain seperates the contents of the nucleus from the cytplasma.
Purpose
The nucleus of the cell is the place where the majority of the cells genetic mateial is found. It keeps the organized trough multiple linear molecules organized into structures known as chromosomes.
Nucleus
lol my name is jeff
and i like

Structure
others
http://study.com/academy/lesson/smooth-er-definition-functions-structure.html#lesson
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
Cell Membrane
cell wall is a structural layer that surrounds some types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible and sometimes rigid and functions to provides cells with structural support and protection and to act as a filtering mechanism. Cell walls are present in plants, fungi and prokaryotic cells
Why animal cell
don't have cell walls
Plant
cell wall
Function
Function
The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. It consists of the phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The cell membrane also plays a role in the anchoring the cytoskeleton to provide shape to the cell
Vacuole
Citation Sources
Function
Mitochondria

http://study.com/academy/lesson/central-vacuole-in-plant-cells-definition-function-quiz.html
https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/biological-
http://organelleproblems.weebly.com/vacuole.html
https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/vacuole.html
Structure
Cellular Structure
made out of two membranes
outer membrane
inner membrane
folds over many times to create cristae
matrix
Molecular Structure
granules contain phospholipids
Mutations and Malfunctions
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane
Malfunctions / Mutations
The vacuole is a very dangerous organelle. The malfunction of the vacuole can cause disease such as Danon disease. Danons disease is caused by mutations in the LAMP 2 gene which usually helps with the fusion of autophagic vacuoles and lysosomes. Too many vacuoles cause damage to the cell.
https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/biological-macromolecules-3/lipids-55/phospholipids-300-11433/
Function
Structures
Cytoplasm is a fluid that is jelly-
like, it fills the cell, and surrounds
the other organelles. It is made up
mostly of water and salt. Cytoplasm
is within the cell membrane, and
contains all organelles and cell parts.

Molecular
Cellular (Entire Membrane)
Nucleolus
Lysosome
Structure
Citations.
sources
video
Smooth ER K
http://bscb.org/learning-resources/softcell-e-learning/endoplasmic-reticulum-rough-and-smooth/
http://www.britannica.com/science/smooth-endoplasmic-reticulum
https://sites.google.com/site/stpaulscells/endoplasmic-reticulum

https://www.google.com/search?q=smooth+ER&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=828&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiU3tzchbnKAhWJFj4KHQ3uC0gQsAQIIw#tbm=isch&q=smooth+er+function&imgrc=-l-HNulZlZQApM%3A

https://www.google.com/search?q=smooth+ER&espv=2&biw=1440&bih=828&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiU3tzchbnKAhWJFj4KHQ3uC0gQsAQIIw#tbm=isch&q=smooth+er+function&imgrc=Fjg8_KbTZIrpnM%3A
images
article
Information: https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=cytoplasm%20function
Cytoplasm has a jell-like structure,
imagine that the cytoplasm is the
jello in this picture, it has all of the other organelles (fruit) floating around in its salty, watery mess. All of these components are inside of the cell and the cell wall. This helps to give shape to the cell over all.
Image: https://www.science.jrank.org/kids/pages/245/Models-Help-Us-Understand-Things-Too-Small-See.html
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puz3jy5200
Disease
Cytoplasm does not contain genetic materials. if there is some kind of problem with cell growth such as the one that occurs in breast carcinomas, then this genetic catastrophe originates in the nucleus of the new cells. However, there will be evidence of these genetic abnormalities found floating in the surrounding cytoplasm. this can be helpful for finding breast cancer because of the many ways to observe this liquid.
Image: https://www.deviantart.com/tag/cytoplasm
By Anthony DePasquale
Malfunctions/Diseases
The cell membrane occupies a pivotal position in the endomembrane system, as it is both the end point of the secretory pathway and the beginning of the endocytic pathway. It also plays important roles in a wide diversity of diseases. Diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis, diabetes, and familial diseases caused by inherited high blood cho-lesterol levels are directly caused by defective or missing mem- brane proteins. In a large number of infectious diseases, microor- ganisms invade body cells in endocytic processes initiated by binding to certain plasma membrane receptors. For viruses like HIV, which are covered in an “envelope” derived from host cell membrane, entry is gained when the virus binds to one or more PM receptors. Other diseases are caused when certain bacteria release toxins that injure cells.
Citations
How it Works

Molecular Structure of the Vacuole
Cellular (Entire Membrane) Structure of the Vacuole
http://www.smusd.org/cms/lib3/CA01000805/Centricity/Domain/1876/Organelles%20and%20Human%20Diseases.pdf
Function

Vacuoles are large organeles that have a variety of functions. Vacuoles are storage bubbles found in cells. They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells. Vacuoles store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive.
http://study.com/academy/lesson/central-vacuole-in-plant-cells-definition-function-quiz.html
sliding surface endoplasmic reticulum has nothing to do with the
synthesis of protein
, but the function of the protein is
more complex
, it may be involved in the
synthesis of glycogen
and
lipid
, steroidal hormone synthesis and secretion, and other function.
In some cells of the stomach tissue type of sliding surface endoplasmic reticulum was found that the accumulation of
Cl-
, this shows that it is related to the secretion of
HCl
. in small intestinal epithelial cells, it is associated with trans fats can be observed.
In the sliding surface of myocardial cells and skeletal muscle cells endoplasmic reticulum, may be associated with the role of conduction excited in smooth muscle cells only to find that it is associated with
Ca2+
uptake and release.
Structure vs Function
The cell membrane separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane surrounds the cytoplasm (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) of the living cell. The cell membrane regulates what enters and what exits the cells. Each phospholipid consists of a hydrophilic head with hydrophobic fatty acid tails hanging from the ends. This protects the fatty acids from the water that surrounds it. Each layer of phospholipids make up a Phospholipid bilayer. There are two bilayers that make up the structure.
Structure vs Function
Flagella and Cilia
http://www.softschools.com/science/biology/function_of_nucleolus/
Structure
Structure
Function
Affects of Structure on Function
Functions
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane
Since the nucleus is the "brain" of the cell, the nucleolus could also be considered the brain of the nucleus. The nucleolus takes up around 25% of the space inside the nucleus.

The nucleolus's primary function is to assemble ribosomes, which is the largest structure in the cell nucleus, and combine it with protiens. It is also responsible for organizing regions that house the genes for pre-rRNA.
Mutations
Functions
https://www.youtube.com
-A lysosomes function is to get rid of wast in a cell.
- Lysosomes eat up food particles as well as viruses.

Structure vs Purpose
The structure of the nucleus allows it to be safe so that the nucleus can perform it's job, allowing the dna proteins to be transfered throught the cell givin the other cell structers jobs to do.
By Sara Lamb
In many eukaryotic cells, there is a structure called a nucleolus. The nucleolus is made of proteins and ribonucleic acids (RNA).

There is an continuous chain between the nucleoplasm and the interior of the nucleolus, which is located in a system of nucleolarpassages. Nucleolarpassages allow macromolecules, with a weight up to 2,000 kDato, be circulated in and out of the nucleolus.
Mutations
One of the most dangerous mutations a nucleus can have is a mutation called ALS. When the genes of a chromosome found in a nucleus have a sudden mutation, it can cause ALS. This almost certainly leads to death everytime.
The structure of the vacuole
affects the organel in many ways.
The vacuole stores food, nutrients
water, and waste. The Vacuole is
what keeps the plants alive because
if it becomes to malnourished, the plant
will end up dying.
The
vacuole inside the plant keeps water from leaving or moving in to the vacuole.The vacuole has almost the same structure of the cell membrane and this is the same for many organelles in the cell.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
http://jgp.sagepub.com/content/2/1/3.abstract
Structure
- lysosomes have acid hydrolase enzymes that are used to break down the waste materials
- The outside surface of the lysosome is a single membrane that can form with other membrane-bound organelles.
-Lysosomes are a circle shaped organelle that can range up to one micrometer across
citations
-http://www.ivyroses.com/Biology/Organelles/Lysosomes.php
Mutations

Because of the close connection to the chromosomal matter of the cell and its major role to create ribosomes, the nucleolus may be the cause of various human diseases.
Structure vs. Functions
constitute
Endoplasmic reticulum contacted the nucleus and cytoplasm and cell membrane of this a few large cell structure, making it through the membrane connected as a whole. Endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for the material from the
nucleus to the cytoplasm
, cell membrane and extracellular
transport process
.
The general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes called cisternae. These sac-like structures are held together by the cytoskeleton. The phospholipid membrane encloses a space, the cisternal space (or lumen), which is continuous with the perinuclear space but separate from the cytosol.
Type sliding surface endoplasmic reticulum is also known as the granularity of endoplasmic reticulum. Sliding surface type capsule reticulum, ribosomes. The shape of slide surface endoplasmic reticulum are basically small
branch pipe
and follicles, sometimes small tube is arranged very closely, in the form of concentric circles around the secretory granules and mitochondria. Type sliding surface endoplasmic reticulum in cross section, there fore, see the form, type, and rough surface endoplasmic reticulum are significantly different.
Structure
1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi apparatus 10 Trans face of the Golgi apparatus 11 Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus
systemic disorders
1, the inner smooth endoplasmic reticulum proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and produce steroid substances, detoxification, hormone-related inactivation of other functions, such as detoxification enhanced increase in liver cells of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, adrenal tumors inner surface of the inner slide endoplasmic reticulum and more.
2, sarcoplasmic reticulum sarcoplasmic reticulum edema is also within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and calcium release and muscle contraction recall. Muscle hypoxia, poisoning, edema can occur sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Abstract

Previous evidence suggests that the increase in platelet membrane fluidity associated with a subgroup of patients with Alzheimer's disease results from the accumulation of internal membrane. The specific activities of enzyme markers for selective cell membrane compartments were compared in platelets from subgroups of demented patients with normal or increased fluidity as well as from normal control subjects. A statistically significant change in enzyme activity was observed only for antimycin A-insensitive NADH-cytochrome reductase, a selective marker for smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in platelets. This reduction was limited to the subgroup of demented patients who had increased platelet membrane fluidity, and therefore is not a nonspecific concomitant of neurodegeneration, medication exposure, or chronic illness in general. Since the platelet membrane alteration associated with Alzheimer's disease results from the inheritance of a single major locus, these results suggest that a defect in SER function may exist in brain cells as well as peripheral cells that express this genotype.

Flagella and Cilia are whiplike appendages found on the exterior of some cells. The function of flagellates and ciliates is to assist the cell's movement as well as to assist the transport of materials and fluids past them.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Philip_Mason2/publication/13694408_X-linked_dyskeratosis_congenita_is_caused_by_mutations_in_a_highly_conserved_gene_with_putative_nucleolar_functions/links/546df87b0cf2bc99c2150635.pdf
X-linked dyskeratosis congenita is one of the diseases that can be caused by mutations in a conserved gene found in the nucleolus. This mutations is also known as X-linked recessive DKC, and is a rare bone marrow failure syndrome.
- Lysosomes have acid hydrolace in its structure that helps the lysosome to break down waste.
This is an example of chlorophyl stucture, this is a more detailed visual of how a chlorophyl functions.
takes in nutrients
breaks them down
create nutrients
keeps the cell full of energy
makes more when cell isn't getting enough energy
creates ATP using energy stored in food
ATP is an energy-rich molecule
Citations:
http://www.ducksters.com/science/biology/cell_mitochondria.php
http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_mito.html
http://thewhisperingsofabutterflysoul.weebly.com/mitochondrial-disease.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/mitochondria.html
Structure vs. Function
Molecular
Cellular
Flagella
Cilia
Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are made up of microtubules and proteins arrayed in a circular pattern surrounded by a plasma membrane (called the axoneme complex). A basal body connects the axoneme complex to the rest of the cell. Prokaryotic flagella and cilia have a "motor" located in their cell's cytoplasmic membrane instead of tubules.
Chloroplast Video
This is picture evidence for what chlrophyll chromatography looks like, which you can see comes in all different colors.
http://biology.about.com/od/plantbiology/ss/chloroplast.htm
The chloroplast is also known as a Plastid, and a Plastid helps by collecting and storaging substances that are needed for energy production.
Chloroplasts are an organelle that has DNA, and that means it's in charge of making lipid and amino acid components necessary for chloroplast membrane production.
A fuction in Chloroplast that is used is Chlorophyll and Chlorophyll absorbs light for photosynthesis.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/chloroplast.html
There is an inner membrane in the chloroplast which contains stroma, which contains ribosomes and DNA.
Sacs in the chloroplast have a name called Thylakoids.
Chlorophyll in the Thylakoid membranes carries the process of photosynthesis.
Thylakoids are disk shaped membranes that are components to form sunlight photosynthesis.
Stroma is the inner-liquid part of Chloroplast

This is a picture of what the Chloroplast structure looks like in a basic format structure, it shows the outside and inside of the Chloroplast.
https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/photosynthesis-8/overview-of-photosynthesis-80/main-structures-and-summary-of-photosynthesis-372-11598/
http://www.food-info.net/uk/colour/chlorophyll.htm
https://twitter.com/chloroblastkp
outer membrane covers the organelle and contains it like skin
the folding of the inner membrane allows more suface area
more surface area = more space for reactions
use oxygen to release energy
matrix is filled with water and protiens
protiens take in organic molecules and chemically digest them

Malfunctions
mitochondrial disease
very rare
occurs when structures that produce energy for a cell malfunction or is defective
cell becomes deprived of ATP
some symptoms include poor growth, muscle weakness, and developemental delays

http://study.com/academy/lesson/chloroplast-structure-chlorophyll-stroma-thylakoid-and-grana.html
The Thylakoid influences the function of the chloroplast by, containing the chlorophyll.
The Thylakoid membrane is where the light reaction takes place.
There are two photosytems in the Thylakoid membrane, in each photosystem there are different proteins and there are slightly different chlorophyll pigments in each photosysytem.
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/ciliaandflagella/ciliaandflagella.html
http://study.com/academy/lesson/thylakoid-membrane-in-photosynthesis-definition-function-structure.html
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03160.x/full
There is a mutation that is out called the Arabidopsis circadian system, which regulates the expression of up to 36% of the nuclear genome.
It includes many genes that encode photosynthetic proteins. The expression of nuclear-encoded photosynthesis genes is also regulated by signals from the chloroplasts.
Scientists have identified CHLOROPLAST RNA BINDING (CRB), a RNA-binding protein, and have shown that it is important for the proper functioning of the chloroplast.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6177/
Malfunctions/Mutations
-Lysosomes generally have about fifty mutation this is a storage/waste removal disorder.
- Mostly the only noticable thing (under a microscope) is that the lysosome will have inlarged vacuoles
- Even though lysosome mutations are rare, they still put a great chalenge on the heath care system because of the becoming more and more common.
Sources
https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-eukaryotic-and-prokaryotic-flagella
Malfunctions caused by problems in flagella and cilia are almost always hereditary. This is because most malfunctions cause flagella and cilia to be unable to function properly in sperm cells. An example of this would be Kartagener's syndrome which causes recurring respiratory infections and male sterility.
Eukaryotic flagella undulate while prokaryotic flagella rotate. This is because the basal motor rotates the prokaryotic flagella, the eukaryotes don't have a motor so they undulate. All cilia undulate giving them a wave-like look when massed together.
Video
"(A) The plasma membrane of a cell is a bilayer of glycerophospholipid molecules. (B) A single glycerophospholipid molecule is composed of two major regions: a hydrophilic head (green) and hydrophobic tails (purple). (C) The subregions of a glycerophospholipid molecule; phosphatidylcholine is shown as an example. The hydrophilic head is composed of a choline structure (blue) and a phosphate (orange). This head is connected to a glycerol (green) with two hydrophobic tails (purple) called fatty acids. (D) This view shows the specific atoms within the various subregions of the phosphatidylcholine molecule. Note that a double bond between two of the carbon atoms in one of the hydrocarbon (fatty acid) tails causes a slight kink on this molecule, so it appears bent."

http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/cell-membranes-14052567
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane
RIBOSOMES
STRUCTURE
FUNCTION
STRUCTURE VS FUNCTION
MalFunctions and Mutations
This Organelle creates proteins by assembling amino acids together. They are the construction workers of the cell that make long amino acid chains, froming proteins.
Cellular: Ribosomes, on the cellular level
are made of of two sub units, 40-S (Small)
and 60-S (Large)

Molecular: Ribosomes, on the molecular
level, are made up of RNA and other proteins
In the structure of a Ribosome
the two RNA is really what detirmines what proteins the Ribosome should build, Its the boss.
Treacle
UTP14
Cirhin
EMG1

Abnormalities In the ears or facial bones

Male Infertility

North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

A lethal autosomal recessive syndrome
Citations
- http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_ribos.html
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2965583/
The walls of plant cells must have sufficient tensile strength to withstand internal osmotic pressures of several times atmospheric pressure that result from the difference in solute concentration between the cell interior and external water.
include:
cellulose, 35-50%
xylan, 20-35%, a type of hemicellulose
lignin
Animal cells do not have cell walls because they do not need them. Cell walls, which are found in plant cells, maintain cell shape, almost as if each cell has its own exoskeleton.
Cell Wall!
The cell wall on Root of tea tree may defend
Pb
http://t.cn/Rb1Fn7n
cell wall
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qxlPFL2lTmQqq
(remove the last 2 Qs to use the url)
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-38XsjOhC4TE/Te4bfQW4W_I/AAAAAAAAAEY/MBhDI1dzKtg/s1600/Figure+3-3.bmp
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=&url=https%3A%2F%2Feis.ekk.edu.ee%2Feis%2Flahendamine%2F2240%2Fedit&bvm=bv.113034660,d.dmo&psig=AFQjCNGMHrf8Y_XQe0SL-Qj_5CEZO_rUVg&ust=1454385991269933
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwil05CF2tXKAhUCRCYKHVMjCzgQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fholykaw.alltop.com%2Fbone-marrow-transplant-stalls-autism-disorder&psig=AFQjCNGHsuNaDnh28JitQOZe32mbmyI1rA&ust=1454386461820552
Golgi Bodies &Transport vesicles
Mutations
Function
Structure
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%86%85%E8%B4%A8%E7%BD%91
Peroxisome
Stucture
Peroxisomes have a crystaline cpre with a plasma membrane and a lipid bilayer
Function
Peroxisoms contain enzymes that gets rid of toxic waste in the cell. Particularly hydrogen peroxide which is a biproduct of cellular motabolisim. They convert the hydrogen peroxide into water wich makes the toxic particles "safe" and it is released back into the cell. In the liver they help to detoxify Alchol.
How Does Structure Effect Function?
Peroxisomes break down lipids or fats and this provides energy for the cell. The braking down of these lipids provides the orgenell with the lipid layer
Mutations
Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy
Causes the damage of the protective covering of nerve cells in your head and spinal chord (demyelination) and adrenal atrophy.
Video
Citations
https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/cell-structure-4/the-endomembrane-system-and-proteins-61/peroxisomes-317-11452/
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/peroxisomes/peroxisomes.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK28022/
Citations
Citations
Video
The structure is made of stacks of flattened membranous sacs, or cisternae. Unlike the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), who's membranes are connected, these membranes are not.
It has been known to bethe cell's "post office." A major function, is the modifying, sorting and packaging of proteins for secretion. It is also involved in the transport of lipids around the cell, and the creation of lysosomes.
There is a gene mutation that causes many muscle diseases such as muscle-eye brain disease, mild limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I to severe congenital muscular dystrophy type 1C, and Walker-Warburg syndrome. These mutations cause dysfunctional proteins in the Golgi apparatus, which affects the transportation of materials from the ER to different areas of the cell. The materials get backed up in the ER, which causes problems specifically in brain and muscle cells.
sorice

the Pectin in Arabidopsis‘s root's cell wall can Anti- cadmium
http://goo.gl/qeXaRF
Lead adsorption by the root cell wall of tea plant.
http://goo.gl/eQPyp3

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_golgi.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/golgi.html
http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/golgi-apparatus.html
http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/walker-warburg-syndrome
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1424219/


There are several groups of organisms that may be called "fungi".Some of these groups have been transferred out of the Kingdom Fungi, in part because of fundamental biochemical differences in the composition of the cell wall. Most true fungi have a cell wall consisting largely of chitin and other polysaccharides。True fungi do not have cellulose in their cell walls.
fungi
Full transcript