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Unit 13 Leadership in Sport - Psychological Factors
Transcript of Unit 13 Leadership in Sport - Psychological Factors
" The tendancy for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives"
Tuckman's Theory of Group formation (1965)
For a group of people to become a team, they must go through five developmental stages. Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing, Adjourning.
Using the article read and highlight the information you think is most important about Tuckman's theory and then write about each of the 5 stages. You should also add in practical examples where possible.
A situation where group members do not put in 100% effort in a group or team based situation because of a lack of motivation.
Ringlemann (1913) observed that group of two, three or eight people pulling a rope did not pull as much as their individual efforts of pulling a rope suggested they would.
When this happens it is now called the Ringelmann effect and occurs when people are not as accountable for their own performance.
As a good sports leader you should continually strive ti motivate and set appropriate goals for each member of a team to reduce the chances of social loafing occurring.
Motivation: " A performers drive to take part and persist in a sport or physical activity session"
Intrinsic - participation without external reward and/or without the primary motivation being the achievement of something external
Extrinsic - when a performer takes part for some kind of external rewards that is often tangible
Think of as many different practical sporting examples as you can for each of these types
Are you mainly extrinsically or intrinsically motivated in your sport? Can you identify why?
How could you as a coach or leader make sure motivation stays high?
Stress, anxiety and arousal
Its important for any sports leader to know the personalities of the athletes they work with so that they can use this information to help motivate individuals and also help with cohesion and preventing social loafing.
It is defined as " the sum of those characteristics which make a person unique".
There are many different persoality theories that can affect leadership and sports performance.
Task: Research the 5 different theories of personality and be able to apply them to a sporting situation
Group cohesion is essential in any sporting environment and it is important that any leader ensures that they bond between any team is strong. They must ensure that they have shared goals and objectives and that every one knows what each others roles in the team are.
Why is Cohesion so important?
Two types: Task Cohesion
What do you think are the differences between the two and can you think of any examples where this has been displayed in sport?
Types of Cohesion
How can a leader help to develop cohesion?
A good leader should set the team appropriate goals and targets and observe the team to make sure no one is isolated or unaware of the shared goals of the group.
The majority of successful sports team will spend large amounts of time together and will need time to develop so it is the manager/coach/leaders job to make sure they are given every opportunity to do so.
Things that affect team cohesion are: environment, personal factors, team factors and leadership factors.
Question: Are the Olympic Teams (Winter and Summer) really a team?
Individuals who don't actively seek excitement and would rather be in a calm environment.
Generally are reserved and quiet and are more likely to take part in individual sports
Tend to become bored quickly, are poor at tasks that require concentration and constantly seek change and excitement.
Are outgoing and good in social situations and are more likely to take part in team sports.
It is really important as a leader you are able to notice
if any of the athletes you coach are showing signs of
stress or anxiety.
Stress is defined by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) as a pattern of negative physiological state and psychological responses occurring in situations where people perceive threats to their well being, which they may be unable to meet"
Eustress - good stress
Distress - bad stress
Can you describe how an athlete might feel each of these types of stress and give an example?
Using the diagram on page 291 apply each stage of stress to your own practical example
As a coach/leader how would you deal with this?
" A negative emotional state that is characterised by, or associated with feelings of nervousness, apprehension or worry."
2 main types:
Trait - abehavioural tendancy to feel threatened and to respond with high levels of anxiety.
State - a temporary ever-changing mood state that is an emotional response to any situation considered to be threatening
Anxiety generally has a negative effect on performance
What are the symptoms of anxiety?
How would you as a leader deal with an athlete who was suffering from anxiety?
" A physiological state of alertness and anticipation that prepares the body for action"
Arousal can have a positive and negative impact on performance and can especially be positive depending on the perception of the athlete
A group of children are playing football, to the annoyance of an old man whose house they are playing outside. He asks them to stop playing but they carry on as they enjoy it so much. After a while, the old man offers them £5 to play for him and as the children enjoy playing they happily accept his offer.
The next day the children come back again but this time the man can only afford to pay them £4 and they continue to play even though it is for less money.
This continues to happen over the next few days until the old man cannot afford to pay them anything. At which point the children refuse to play.
1) What motivates the children to play initially?
2)At the end what is the motivating factor for the children?
3)What effect has the extrinsic had on the intrinsic motivation?
There are 4 main theories of arousal:
Inverted U hypothesis
The catastrophe theory
The individual zones of optimal functioning
Research each of these and then explain how you
would use this knowledge as a coach/leader to help