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Church & State during the Middle Ages
Transcript of Church & State during the Middle Ages
In 1294 Pope Boniface VIII reopened conflict with
monarchy by stating that they need his approval to tax
King Philip IV of France reacted by arresting and
Boniface was released soon after, but this action
shattered tradition of respect and obedience of the pope.
After Boniface died, Philip used influence to get elected
Clement V who supported France.
Philip then moved the papal residence to Avignon, nearby. ``babylonian captivity`` Other countries were suspicious of
the Pope`s relocation, esp. England
who already held deep feelings of
animosity towards France
Italians in particular lobbied for the
return of the Pope to Rome Finally in 1378 Gregory XI decided to end the
Avignonese papacy and move back to Rome the great schism Pope Gregory died shortly after return to Rome
College of cardinals elected an Italian as pope
Shortly after a group of French cardinals disputed
They elected a second pope who returned to Avignon
and set up his administration there Who should clergy, bishops and universities listen to? problems = division Divided people along national and regional lines so... had to be settled by rulers solutions In 1409 cardinals called a general council to resolve the issue. They decided to elect a third pope, but neither of the other two would step down, so then there were
3 popes Council of constance In 1414, 400 Church leaders met to finally resolve this problem
After 3 years, they deposed the three rival popes and elected Pope Martin V whom everyone accepted
The council was also supposed to introduce reforms, but all they did was make a few modifications to church administration
This failure would come up again when reformers, led by Martin Luther, would break apart the Church Indulgences Originated with pope Urban II and First Crusade
Basically promises that sins will be forgiven and
sinners would spend less time in purgatory
Could even get full indulgence and go straight to heaven How do you get an indulgence? By carrying out specific good works
By giving money to the poor
Building a church
Eventually came to be seen as commodity for sale the inquisition Heresy:
Opinion or doctrine at variance with the orthodox or accepted doctrine, esp. of a church or religious system. Refers to papal inquisitions for suppressing heretics
In 1252 Pope Innocent IV decreed that torture and starvation could be used to extract confessions from suspected heretics
Penalties for heresy ranged from prayer and fasting to excommunication, exile and life imprisonment
Suspects who maintained their innocence or heretics who relapsed after repenting were executed, often by being burned at the stake The spanish inquisition Authorized by Pope in 1478
De Torquemada, the Great Inquisitor, was a zealot and could not be controlled by either pope or monarch
Did not target just Christians, but also Jews and Muslims
Ended period of religious tolerance in Spain Avignon vs. Rome Right away european countries started taking sides
France and its allies backed the pope at Avignon
Enemies of France and neutral countries backed the
Roman pope Modern day inquistions? McCarthyism internment of japanese-canadians during wwII actions taken against women in afghanistan