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The Amazon Rainforest

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Lennon Kramer

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of The Amazon Rainforest

The Amazon Rainforest Lennon Kramer Abiotic Factors: Weather, climate, rainfall
amounts, amount of sunlight, wind, air temp.
Cloud cover, and soil are all abiotic factors of the
rainforest. Soil in the amazon is very poor, so plants
have to store nutrients inside them during the wet
season. The Amazon river rises so much that it
floods part of the forest allowing soil to absorb the
nutrients. (grmsbiomes 2010, prezi 2012)) Limiting Factors: There are many limiting
factors in the Amazon. Some include
population size, availability of food, predation
pressure, disease, and human activity. The
main limiting factor, although, is sunlight.
This is because of the thick canopy. Another
big limiting factor is water. Large amounts
of water are needed for plants and animals
to survive. (prezi,2012) Organims: There are many different kinds
of organisms found in this ecosystem.
Producers: bromeliads, saprophytes,
epiphytes, fruits, and algae. Producers are
mainly plants. (grmsbiomes,2010)

Primary: Capybara, Insects
Secondary: Anaconda, Dart Frog
Tertiary: Jaguar, Bengal Tiger
(grmsbiomes,2010) Biotic Factors: The tree canopy,
primates, frogs, jaguars, plants,
and fungi are all biotic factors.
The tree canopy provides shade
and water for organisms that live
below it. (prezi, 2012) http://therainforestaworldbiome.weebly.com/food-chain.html Mutualistic Relationships: Brazil Nut tree
and the Agouti. The Agouti eats the Brazil nuts
and then scatters the seeds throughout the
forest. It buries the seeds which leads to the
next generation of trees. (grmsbiomes, 2010)

Sloths + Algae: The algae grows in the sloths' hair to give it camouflage. In return, the algae gets sunlight and grows http://students.cis.uab.edu/cohn/page%205.html Parasitism: Green Anaconda vs. Capybara
The anaconda waits until the Capybara is near
the water, and then attacks it using constriction
to crush and kill. (grmsbiomes, 2010)

Phorid Fly vs. Leaf Cutter Ant
When leaf cutter ants are collecting leaves, the phorid flies attack them and lay their eggs in the crevices of the ant's head. When the eggs hatch, the larvae burrows into the ant's body and feed on it, killing the ant. (grmsbiomes, 2010) http://naturecloseups.com/posts/phorid-fly-attempting-to-oviposit-on-a-leafcutter-ant Commensalism: World Army Ants and the Antbird
The Antbird follows the Army Ants as they march down the forest floor. As the ants shake the floor, insects fly up and are eaten by the antbird. (grmsbiomes, 2010)

Frog + Tree: The frog lives in the tree, and the tree provides shelter for the frog in order for it to live safely. http://middletowneyenews.blogspot.com/2011/07/gray-tree-frog.html (grmsbiomes, 2010) Role of Predation in Population Control: Big cats and eagles are major regulators of prey species numbers. Through predation, carnivores can moderate competition among similar species so that more species are able to use a certain habitat. On the other hand, when freed from control by its predators, one species in a guild of species may be able to outcompete and thus eliminate the others. (rewilding, 2007)

Predators can control population growth of prey species. When big hunters disappear, their prey species may boom in numbers and degrade their habitat. (rewilding, 2007) Biomass Pyramid of the Tropical Rainforest http://stanleybio89.wikispaces.com/ Primary Succession: Primary succession usually begins on bare soil or sand where no plants grew before. When the right amount of sunlight, moisture, and air temperature are present, seeds begin to grow.They continue to grow and eventually form meadows. Over time, and as conditions change, other plants begin to grow, such as shrubs and trees. As primary succession continues, balsa, pine, and palm, begin to thrive. They change the environment by making shade. Now trees with broader leaves, can take root. If conditions are right, a mixed forest of sun-loving and shade-loving trees may continue for many years, which is usually true in a rain forest with its many tree species. (galeschools)

Secondary Succession: When the land has been stripped of trees, it will eventually be covered with them again if left alone. Seeds from other forests in neighboring regions are blown by the wind or carried by animals to the site. (galeschools) Impact of Human Activity: Human activity may impact the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Population explosion intensifies all types of human activities in the rainforest. It increases scale and rate of deforestation in order to create new land for human beings. Human activity also causes a shift in agriculture, like cutting down or burning trees to obtain new land, or farming. (jcckc)
Rapid population growth leading to agriculture and development is now destroying tropical rainforests. (book) Future Predictions: Between June 2000 and June 2008, more than 150,000 square kilometers of rainforest were cleared in the Brazilian Amazon. While deforestation rates have slowed since 2004, forest loss is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. (mongabay, 2008) Under the most likely scenario — governance — local ecosystems could lose an average of 12 species and condemn 19 more to extinction. In the worst-case scenario, local species are close to eliminated. (scientificamerican, 2012) (grmsbiomes, 2010) Works Cited
Butler, Rhett A. "Future Threats to the Amazon Rainforest." Mongabay.com. N.p., 31 July 2008. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://news.mongabay.com/2008/0801-amazon.html>.

Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. AP ed. Vol. 7. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Print.

Flicek, Mikayla. "Relationships - Tropical Rainforest." Biome Project [licensed for Non-commercial Use Only] /. N.p., 2010. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://grmsbiomes.pbworks.com/w/page/23239297/Relationships20%-20%Tropical Rainforest>.

"Gale Schools - Environmental Resources - Biomes - Rain Forest - Home." Gale Schools - Environmental Resources - Biomes - Rain Forest - Home. Gale Cengage Learning, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www.galeschools.com/environment/biomes/rain_forest/index.htm>.

"Human's Activities in Tropical Rainforest." Human's Activities in Tropical Rainforest. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www.jcckc.net/geog/AL/Manland/humans.htm>.

Terborgh, John. "Top-down Regulation of Ecosystems by Large Carnivores." Top-down Regulation of Ecosystems by Large Carnivores. The Rewilding Institute, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www.rewilding.org/TopDownRegulation.html>.

Thompson, Helen. "Most of Amazon Rainforest's Species Extinctions Are Yet to Come: Scientific American." Most of Amazon Rainforest's Species Extinctions Are Yet to Come: Scientific American. Nature Magazine, 13 July 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=most-amazon-rainforest-species-extinctions-yet-to-come>

Walker, Lachie. "Amazon Rainforest Ecosystem." Prezi.com. N.p., 18 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://prezi.com/sqaepeheafry/amazon-rainforest-ecosystem/>.

Wang, Flora. "Biotic Factors - Tropical Rainforest." Biome Project [licensed for Non-commercial Use Only] /. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://grmsbiomes.pbworks.com/w/page/23239263/Biotic Factors - Tropical Rainforest>.
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