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Eclipse!!!

EXPLORE THE SPECTACULAR ECLIPSE OF SPACE!!!
by

Apple Lee

on 14 June 2013

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Transcript of Eclipse!!!

Eclipse
Presented by Apple Lee
Lunar Eclipse
History of Solar Eclipse
Chinese Eclipse History
Ancient Greece Eclipse History
Europe Eclipse History
Modern Times Eclipse
Image of Lunar Eclipse
Image of Solar Eclipse
Image of Total Solar Eclipse
Total Solar Eclipse
Solar Eclipse
The Sun
The Earth
The Moon
The Earth's Two Shadows
Solar Eclipse In The Future
Lunar Eclipse In The Future
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Different types of Eclipse
Eclipses very often occur in threes, alternating lunar, solar and lunar.
The cycle of eclipses repeats every 18.6 years called the saros. The eclipse shadow moves at 2,000 mph at the Earth's poles and 1,000 mph at the Earth's equator.
The Sun is about 4.5 billion years old. The Sun is by far the largest object in the solar system. It contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System (Jupiter contains most of the rest). The outer layers of the Sun exhibit differential rotation: at the equator the surface rotates once every 25.4 days; near the poles it's as much as 36 days. This odd behavior is due to the fact that the Sun is not a solid body like the Earth.
Earth is the only planet that were known to have living creatures living on the planet so far. The Earth is the densest major body in the solar system. 71 Percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water. Earth is the only planet on which water can exist in liquid form on the surface. The Earth's atmosphere is 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, with traces of argon, carbon dioxide and water.
Penumbra, the outer part of the earth's shadow, cast by a celestial body, where the light from the Sun is partially blocked.
Umbra, the earth's shadow’s darkest, central part, is the place where the light is totally excluded.
The Moon is a 4.6 billion year old ball of rock that circles around Earth once every 27 days, 7 hours and 43 minutes. On the Moon's surface, the force of gravitation is about 1/6 that on earth. The surface temperature rises above 100°C (212°F) at lunar noon and sinks below -155°C (-247°F) at night. The Moon moves in a counterclockwise direction with an average orbital speed of about 0.6 miles/sec or 2,160 m.p.h. There is no air on the Moon.
Lunar eclipses can only occur during a full moon. Lunar eclipses are visible over an entire hemisphere. The maximum time a lunar eclipse can last is 3 hours and 40 minutes. Lunar eclipses can occur up to 3 times a year. A partial lunar eclipse is when only part of the Moon travels through the umbral shadow of the Earth.
Solar eclipses can only occur during a new moon. A Solar eclipse always occurs two weeks before or after a lunar eclipse. The maximum time for a total solar eclipse is 7 minutes and 40 seconds. While the maximum time for an annular solar eclipse is 12 minutes 24 seconds. Solar eclipses are visible in a narrow path a maximum of 167 miles wide (269km.) Solar eclipses can occur at least 2 but no more than 5 times a year.
A total eclipse begins as a barely noticeable nibble out of the sun. Over the next hour or so this blemish widens and eventually convers the sun, turning day to night. This state is called totality. The maximum time for a total solar eclipse is 7 minutes and 40 seconds, although it is usually only lasts half of that.
The solar eclipse has been the center of attention in history and is linked to many myths and traditions. These days it is still a special occasion for eclipse enthusiasts all over the world.
As far back as 2800 BCE the ancient Chinese observed a rhythm in the occurrence of solar eclipses, although many ancient civilizations believed the occurrence of an eclipse was a demon eating the sun. They thought that the best way to get rid of the “demon” that was consuming their sun was to unite and make as much noise as possible to scare it away. At the first sight of an eclipse, everyone would immediately gather to bang drums and shout or scream as loudly as possible.
The ancient Greeks believed that an eclipse was a sign of angry gods, therefore it was thought of as a bad omen. Solar eclipses have even altered the course of human history. The Greek historian Herodotus recorded that at the height of a particularly fierce battle, darkness fell upon the land. Apparently the two armies waged a war close to the path of a solar eclipse. The armies took this as a sign and stopped fighting instantly, making peace with each other.
On May 29, 1919, a total solar eclipse was used to prove Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity by showing that gravity can bend light. These days, astronomers also use total solar eclipses to photograph and study the composition of the sun's corona. They time the eclipse accurately to calculate the exact dimensions of the sun.
The oldest known testament to people’s attempt to understand the eclipse is Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain in England. Stonehenge is believed to have been used to measure the motions of the sun and moon. During the eclipse of August 16, 1868, Sir Joseph Lockyer of England and Monsieur Pierre Janssen of France independently discovered the telltale signs of helium in the sun's corona. Helium became the first chemical element to be discovered outside the Earth. It takes its name from the Greek word for the sun − Helios.
Penumbral - The Moon passes through Earth's penumbral shadow. These pale eclipses are faint and hard to see.
Partial - A portion of the Moon passes through Earth's umbral shadow. These are easy to see with the unaided eye.
Total - The entire Moon passes through Earth's umbral shadow. The Moon can turn orange, red or dark brown.
Different Types of Lunar Eclipse


Lunar Eclipses: 2011 - 2030

Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse Eclipse Type Saros Series Umbral Magnitude Eclipse Duration Geographic Region of Eclipse Visibility

2011 Jun 15 20:13:43 Total 130 1.700 03h39m

01h40m S.America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus.

2011 Dec 10 14:32:56 Total 135 1.106 03h32m

00h51m Europe, e Africa, Asia, Aus., Pacific, N.A.

2012 Jun 04 11:04:20 Partial 140 0.370 02h07m Asia, Aus., Pacific, Americas

2012 Nov 28 14:34:07 Penumbral 145 -0.187 - Europe, e Africa, Asia, Aus., Pacific, N.A.

2013 Apr 25 20:08:38 Partial 112 0.015 00h27m Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus.

2013 May 25 04:11:06 Penumbral 150 -0.934 - Americas, Africa

2013 Oct 18 23:51:25 Penumbral 117 -0.272 - Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia

2014 Apr 15 07:46:48 Total 122 1.291 03h35m

01h18m Aus., Pacific, Americas

2014 Oct 08 10:55:44 Total 127 1.166 03h20m

00h59m Asia, Aus., Pacific, Americas

2015 Apr 04 12:01:24 Total 132 1.001 03h29m

00h05m Asia, Aus., Pacific, Americas

2015 Sep 28 02:48:17 Total 137 1.276 03h20m

01h12m e Pacific, Americas, Europe, Africa, w Asia

2016 Mar 23 11:48:21 Penumbral 142 -0.312 - Asia, Aus., Pacific, w Americas

2016 Sep 16 18:55:27 Penumbral 147 -0.064 - Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus., w Pacific

2017 Feb 11 00:45:03 Penumbral 114 -0.035 - Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia

2017 Aug 07 18:21:38 Partial 119 0.246 01h55m Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus.

2018 Jan 31 13:31:00 Total 124 1.315 03h23m

01h16m Asia, Aus., Pacific, w N.America

2018 Jul 27 20:22:54 Total 129 1.609 03h55m

01h43m S.America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus.

2019 Jan 21 05:13:27 Total 134 1.195 03h17m

01h02m c Pacific, Americas, Europe, Africa

2019 Jul 16 21:31:55 Partial 139 0.653 02h58m S.America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus.

2020 Jan 10 19:11:11 Penumbral 144 -0.116 - Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus.

2020 Jun 05 19:26:14 Penumbral 111 -0.405 - Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus.

2020 Jul 05 04:31:12 Penumbral 149 -0.644 - Americas, sw Europe, Africa

2020 Nov 30 09:44:01 Penumbral 116 -0.262 - Asia, Aus., Pacific, Americas

2021 May 26 11:19:53 Total 121 1.009 03h07m

00h15m e Asia, Australia, Pacific, Americas

2021 Nov 19 09:04:06 Partial 126 0.974 03h28m Americas, n Europe, e Asia, Australia, Pacific

2022 May 16 04:12:42 Total 131 1.414 03h27m

01h25m Americas, Europe, Africa

2022 Nov 08 11:00:22 Total 136 1.359 03h40m

01h25m Asia, Australia, Pacific, Americas

2023 May 05 17:24:05 Penumbral 141 -0.046 - Africa, Asia, Australia

2023 Oct 28 20:15:18 Partial 146 0.122 01h17m e Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia

2024 Mar 25 07:13:59 Penumbral 113 -0.132 - Americas

2024 Sep 18 02:45:25 Partial 118 0.085 01h03m Americas, Europe, Africa

2025 Mar 14 06:59:56 Total 123 1.178 03h38m

01h05m Pacific, Americas, w Europe, w Africa

2025 Sep 07 18:12:58 Total 128 1.362 03h29m

01h22m Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia

2026 Mar 03 11:34:52 Total 133 1.151 03h27m

00h58m e Asia, Australia, Pacific, Americas

2026 Aug 28 04:14:04 Partial 138 0.930 03h18m e Pacific, Americas, Europe, Africa

2027 Feb 20 23:14:06 Penumbral 143 -0.057 - Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia

2027 Jul 18 16:04:09 Penumbral 110 -1.068 - e Africa, Asia, Australia, Pacific

2027 Aug 17 07:14:59 Penumbral 148 -0.525 - Pacific, Americas

2028 Jan 12 04:14:13 Partial 115 0.066 00h56m Americas, Europe, Africa

2028 Jul 06 18:20:57 Partial 120 0.389 02h21m Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia

2028 Dec 31 16:53:15 Total 125 1.246 03h29m

01h11m Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, Pacific

2029 Jun 26 03:23:22 Total 130 1.844 03h40m

01h42m Americas, Europe, Africa, Mid East

2029 Dec 20 22:43:12 Total 135 1.117 03h33m

00h54m Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia

2030 Jun 15 18:34:34 Partial 140 0.502 02h24m Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia

2030 Dec 09 22:28:51 Penumbral 145 -0.163 - Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia
Lunar Eclipses: 2011 - 2015
Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse Eclipse Type Saros Series Umbral Magnitude Eclipse Duration Geographic Region of Eclipse Visibility
2011 Jun 15 20:13:43 Total 130 1.700 03h39m 01h40m S.America, Europe, Africa, Asia
2011 Dec 10 14:32:56 Total 135 1.106 03h32m 00h51m Europe, e Africa, Asia, Aus.
2012 Jun 04 11:04:20 Partial 140 0.370 02h07m Asia, Aus., Pacific, Americas
2012 Nov 28 14:34:07 Penumbral 145 -0.187 Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus., Pacific
2013 Apr 25 20:08:38 Partial 112 0.015 00h27m Europe, Africa, Asia, Aus.
2013 May 25 04:11:06 Penumbral 150 -0.934 Americas, Africa
2013 Oct 18 23:51:25 Penumbral 117 -0.272 Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia
2014 Apr 15 07:46:48 Total 122 1.291 03h35m 01h18m Pacific, Americas, Aus.
2014 Oct 08 10:55:44 Total 127 1.166 03h20m 00h59m Asia, Aus., Pacific, Americas
2015 Apr 04 12:01:24 Total 132 1.001 03h29m 00h05m Asia, Aus., Pacific, Americas
2015 Sep 28 02:48:17 Total 137 1.276 03h20m 01h12m Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia
Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse Eclipse Type Saros Series Eclipse Magnitude Central Duration Geographic Region of Eclipse Visibility
2011 Jan 04 08:51:42 Partial 151 0.858 Europe, Africa, c Asia
2011 Jun 01 21:17:18 Partial 118 0.601 East Asia, North America, Iceland
2011 Jul 01 08:39:30 Partial 156 0.097 South Indian Ocean
2011 Nov 25 06:21:24 Partial 123 0.905 South Africa, Antarctica, N.Z
2012 May 20 23:53:53 Annular 128 0.944 05m46s Asia, Pacific, North America
2012 Nov 13 22:12:55 Total 133 1.050 04m02s Australia, N.Z., Pacific, South America
2013 May 10 00:26:20 Annular 138 0.954 06m03s North Australia, N.Z., c Pacific
2013 Nov 03 12:47:36 Hybrid 143 1.016 01m40s East Americas, South Europe, Africa
2014 Apr 29 06:04:32 Annular 148 0.987 South Indian, Australia, Antarctica
2014 Oct 23 21:45:39 Partial 153 0.811 North Pacific, North America
2015 Mar 20 09:46:47 Total 120 1.045 02m47s Iceland, Europe, North Africa, Asia
2015 Sep 13 06:55:19 Partial 125 0.788 South Africa, South Indian, Antarctica
Different Types of Solar Eclipse
Partial - Moon's penumbral shadow traverses Earth (umbral and antumbral shadows completely miss Earth)
Annular - Moon's antumbral shadow traverses Earth (Moon is too far from Earth to completely cover the Sun)
Total - Moon's umbral shadow traverses Earth (Moon is close enough to Earth to completely cover the Sun)
Hybrid - Moon's umbral and antumbral shadows traverse Earth (eclipse appears annular and total along different sections of its path). Hybrid eclipses are also known as annular-total eclipses.
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