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Biology 1 Chapter 20 Section 2

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mikaela thomas

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of Biology 1 Chapter 20 Section 2

photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr Club Fungi Among the 25,000 members of the Basidiomycota phylum are mushrooms.
They can be saprophytic, parasitic, or mutualistic.
Sac Fungi Life Cycle of Molds Diversity of fungi Chapter 20 Section 2 Classification of fungi Biologist use fungi structure & methods of reproduction to divide fungi into four major phyla - Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.
Molecular evidence suports the veiw that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants. Chytrids The fungi in the phylum Chytridiomycota are refered to as chytrids
Most chyrids are aquatic, and they are unique among fungi because they produce flagellated spores.
Chyrides are more closely related to fungi than to protists because of similar protein and DNA sequences.
Chyrides were prehapes the first fungi and are the evolutionary link between the funguslike protists and fungi. Common Molds The most familiar member of the phylum Zygomycota is a commom mold that grows on bread and other foods called Rhizopus stolonifer it is also found on dead and decaying plants and animals.
Molds form a type of hyphae called stolons that spread across the surface of food.
Another type is rhizoids, penetrates the food and absorbes nutrients. Vocab
Stolons
Rhiziods
Gametangium
Conidiophores
Ascocarp
Ascus
Ascospores
Basidiocarp
Basidia
Basidiospores Zaygomycetes reproduce both asexually and sexually.
Asexual reproduction occurs when thousands of haploid spores are spread by wind or other air movement.
If conditions are no longer favorable then the zygomycetes can reproduce sexually.
There are no defined male or female fungi, only plus +, or minus - mateing strains.
Each hypha produces a gametangium which is a reproductive structure that contains a haploid nucleus.

Ther are over 60,000 species of sac fungi found in the phylum Ascomycota.
It contains more than any other phylum of fungi.
The most well known ascomycete- yeast- is unicellular , most members of this group are multicellular.
Life Cycle
Sac fungi can reproduce both asexually and sexually.
During asexual reproduction, spores are formed at the tips of hyphae, this spore produceing hyphae is called conidiophores. These spores are dispersed eaisally by wind, water, and animals.
Sexual reproduction happens when differant hyphae fuse and one nucleaus from each type pair off in seperate cells.
The hyphae will develop a specilized reproductive structure called ascocarp. The nuclei develop in a saclike structure called ascus. Spores produced by a ascus are called ascospores.

Life Cycle
Rarely reproduce asexual spores.
The mycelium periodically will reproduce sexually by forming a basidiocarp, or a fruiting body.
It is estimated that some mushrooms will produce as many as a billion basidiospores.
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