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Supervisory Roles and Its Impact on Educational Accountability
Transcript of Supervisory Roles and Its Impact on Educational Accountability
The Role of The Superintendent
Superintendents have three main roles with respect to
Superintendent's role in Educational Accountability
-Provide achievement data to parents, teachers, and federal government.
-Implement consequences for low performing schools
-Create and implement action plans to improve student achievement.
-Implement administrative evaluations based on educational accountability.
-Allocate resources and personnel within the district to uphold the goals and objectives.
-Oversee labor and relations that correlate with educational accountability (firing and hiring)
District Curriculum Supervisor and Their
Role in Educational Accountability
Please view the following clip up to the 8:00 mark.
An important question is asked by N. Miro: How can we do things differently, getting better results, and being able to replicate it in different educational contexts? These are the Role of a District Curriculum Leader:
Innovation, Being Open to Discover the Drivers of Change, Being Creative Enough to Establish the specific Actions, Being Open to New Approaches to respond to the new drivers of change
"We need to
know what kind
of world we are
"We need to understand what those drivers of change are (trends)."
"By favoring the use of standardized testing (even in its earliest stages of development) and promoting the ability of schools to serve as a sorting mechanism for society, superintendents strengthened the economic rationale for schooling, to the detriment of other equally important, though perhaps less clearly defined, purposes, such as the development of human capacity or the creation of students who understand the principles and responsibilities of citizenship in a democracy" (Feuerstein, A. 2013).
Feuerstein, A. (2013). Knuckling Under? School Superintendents and Accountability-Based Educational Reform. Journal Of School Leadership, 23(5), 865-897.
"Accountability became the cornerstone of NCLB, which was signed into law by President Bush in January 2002. While often criticized with respect to some of its narrow definitions and timelines, the law's underlying logic of accountability has continued to have broad conceptual support from liberals and conservatives" (Feuerstein, A. 2013).
The Many Hats of the
The Achievement Gap
One of the most difficult roles of a superintendent has been to find a solution to close the achievement gap and explain why effective teachers are not creating high achieving students.
The Roles of a Principal
Supervisor to Teachers
Student Discipline Enforcer
The Roles of the Vice Principal
Supervisor to Teachers:
performing classroom observations
supervision and mentor practices
develop school-community relations
facilitate parent meetings
encourage staff collaboration
train staff to prepare for state testing
organize program for testing
ensure all participants are fully prepared
review current program
assist in development of new curriculum
lead and organize team
Student Discipline Enforcer
enforce school rules
monitor and mentor students
assist students daily
Vice Principal's Role in Educational Accountability
support student learning with curriculum development
lead the school for state test preparation
support teachers to provide optimal learning
knowledge of daily activities
guide new teachers
available to help staff & parents
develop school and community relations
regular visits to classrooms
suggestions for improvement
provide conflict-resolution for the school community
Review Policies & Procedure
reinforce the school procedures and rules
develop school handbook
knowledge of state laws
regulate student behavior to create a positive learning environment
Evaluate & Develop Programs
extra curricular programs
state funded programs
Hire New Teachers
Parent & Community Relations
build trust with parents
know the students
get local businesses involved with school projects & fundraisers
Vice Principal's Support for Educators
supporting individual professional improvement plans
supporting Corrective Action Plans
promoting collaboration among staff
encouraging professional development
performing teacher evaluations
performing classroom observations
"Nearly 60% of school's total impact on student achievement is attributable to principal and teacher effectiveness" (Fenton, et al. 2010, p. 9).
Wolfe, M. (2004, Summer). Vice-principals: The complex role of school administrators. Education Today, 16, 28-30.
Kwan, P. (2009). The vice-principal experience as a preparation for the principalship. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(2), 191-205.
What impact do principals have on accountability?
Principals need to know what their teachers are teaching. Principals need to check that teachers are aligning their lessons with the standards. In addition when evaluating teachers, giving them feedback on how they are doing is crucial. Also principals need to be able to give suggestions for improvement.
Principals need to know how their school is doing (which is a reflection of leadership). Data/tests are one way to show accountability. Once principals have this information they need to utilize it to achieve the most growth from their students as possible. To get maximum student growth, principals need to look at their teachers. By encourage teachers to continue education in various ways, providing staff development, and providing support a principal is leading their staff to a better outcome.
A research study commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education found that when teachers are provided at least 49 hours of PD (professional development) over a six to twelve month period they can be expected to boost their students' achievements by about 21 percentile points (Nobori, 2011).
Fenton, B., Kelemen, M., Norskog, A., Robinson, D., Schnur, J., Simmons, M., Taliaferro, L., & Walker, R. (2010). Evaluating principals: Balancing accountability with professional growth. New leaders for new schools. Retrieved from http://www.isbe.net/peac/pdf/eval_principals.pdf
Nobori, M. (2011, Oct. 18). How principals can grow teacher excellence. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/stw-school-turnaround-principal-teacher-development-tips
So Where Do Educational Accountability and Curriculum
English and Steffy (2001) explain,
"Tests are cheap compared to things like class size reduction or hiring more aides,
Tests can be externally mandated rather easily compared to trying to change what happens in classrooms,
Tests can be quickly implemented and within the terms of office of elected legislators , so that claims of improvement can be attached to candidate incumbency,
Test results are visible and can be made into good media release..." (pp. 1-2).
Curriculum is connected to the results we expect from children. It would be illogical to implement a test without connecting it back to the curriculum. Therefore, when the powers that be make the decision to test children, Curriculum Leaders must respond so that their students will be prepared and their teachers will help students to meet the needs of their tests (educational accountability).
So just how is content chosen for
curriculum or testing?
According to English and Steffy (2001), "Tests represent many decisions about what and who considers the content they embrace important. Since there is no science of selecting curriculum content, the "stuff" that ends up in tests is not the product of some new
form of value-neutral engineering. Nearly all curriculum
content is selected by a form of consensus, some more
democratic than others." (p. 9).
So what exactly is the role of the District Curriculum Leader or Supervisor?
- To streamline the curriculum and be sure that the curriculum determined by the state is, in fact, the curriculum in use in classrooms.
-To examine data and notice any skill defecits across a standard, then educate teachers on which standards they must work with students on.
-To work with teachers, helping to educate them on curriculum-related matters at the school district and state level. Teachers need to understand their responsibility in the Educational Accountability game.
-To insure that foundational skills (when necessary) are covered and resources are available for remediation within the curriculum.
-To insure the curriculum allows for some instructional and assessment flexibility for students of various ability, while making sure children are achieving the same curricular goals, moving toward mastery of the state curriculum and preparing students for any testing based on the material (Educational Accountability).
English, F., & Steffy, B. (2001). Deep curriculum alignment: Creating a level playing field for all children on high-stakes tests of educational accountability. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Education.
Director of Guidance
The Many Roles of a Director of Guidance
Roles & Educational Accountability Continued...
The Director of Guidance is responsible for running a program that supports the
academic, social/emotional growth
of students and prepares them to set and achieve personal goals regarding their future.
Roles & Educational Accountability
Assist in development of Master Schedule & Individual Courses of Study.
Confirm appropriate placement for all ELL & SPED students.
Oversee accurate record keeping of all cumulative files and transcripts.
Coordinate new student registration and develop transfer out protocols.
Assist in the administration of all testing.
Interpret and analyze all testing results.
Academic & Post-Secondary Support
Coordinate vocational guidance support for graduates, current students and students at risk of dropping out.
Coordinate all College Board Testing programs.
Oversee development of all college and scholarship applications.
Maintain online databases such as Naviance.
Coordinate with the I&RS team.
Visit and build relationships with colleges and universities.
Prepare budget for the counseling department.
Prepare guidance related reports for Principal, Superintendent or Department of Education.
Interview and reccommend candidates for School Counselor positions.
Observe and evaluate all counselors.
Data-Consistently analyzing data in order to ensure appropriate services are being provided to assist students reach their utmost potential.
High Test Scores =
Scheduling more Honors/AP Courses
Low FAFSA Completion=
Coordinating FAFSA Parent Night
Increase in Truancy=
Revising Attendance Policies & Procedures
Increase in Fights=
Collaborating with Climate & Culture Team
Increase in Bullying=
Coordinating with Social Workers and providing group/individual counseling
Low PSAT Scores=
Implementing SAT Prep Class in next year's Master Schedule
Increase in incoming SPED/ ELL Students=
Collaborate with CST and Bilingual Department
School Business Administrator
The School Business Administrator typically
works under the Superintendent.
Their overall responsibility is to manage all
business practices of the school which includes
budget reviews and negotiations while adhering
to state laws and regulations.
The Business Administrator prepares and
administers the budget of the school districts.
This process encompasses, an annual review
and a budget for each department within the
school. In addition to these responsibilities,
the Business Administrator submits a detailed budget report to the Superintendent and the
School Board for recommendation.
The School Business Administrators supervises the financial staff, however, some may have added responsibilities of supervising teachers too, particularly if they are in a larger school district.
The financial accounting and purchasing activities of the district
is also a responsibility of the Business Administrator. They oversee the purchasing component of the district management and negotiate contracts for school supplies, equipment and other school related purchases.
Responsibilities of a School Business Administrator (eHow)
By: Kokemuller, Neil.
Alisyn Brown-Morder, Wendell Crawford,
Jinny De Jesus, Caroline Flamos,
Patricia Hague, Pramod Shankar
"Highly effective principals take deliberate steps to boost the effectiveness of their teaching force; in turn, improved teacher effectiveness produces higher levels of student learning" (Fenton, et al. 2010, p. 17).