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EDUC 21172 Research Methodology
Transcript of EDUC 21172 Research Methodology
Sidra Hanif &
(Healthy Eating Index: HEI)
Individuals with a learning disability may find it increasingly more difficult to understand the importance of healthy eating.
Some learning disabilities are associated with other conditions making being overweight more likely.
such conditions as; Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome (which causes an insatiable appetite)
Factors as such make weight management very challenging.
Lack of information (accessibility)
Associated health and mental well being (dual diagnosis)
Contrast of eating problems
Contra-indications of medicine
Abuse (poor practice)
Level of disability varying
Emotional attachment to food
Inability to work
Carers being the problem
This journal article was produced by the Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, Department of Health and Human Services, Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, National Centre for Health Statistics.
The report incorporates 3 years of research statistics for people over the age of 60. It looks at the association of sociodemographic and health characteristics. This includes HEI scores and sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, smoking status, tooth retention, self-reported health and body mass index.
Ethical issues arising in 'Participants Design'
Handling Personal Data
Questionnaire/ Interview Answers
Names & Signatures
PhotographS/ Video/ Audio Transcripts
Health Status/ Threat to life/ Psychological Effects
Consent/ Consent from Family
Gain informed Consent from the individual
Provide clear, accessible information
provide information on how to withdraw from the process
Securely hold data/
Retention of Data= Timescale
Annonymous & Publish anonymously
No Marketing/ profit
WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ETHICAL QUESTIONS TO THINK ABOUT?
Hippocratic Oath -5th Century BC
Nuremberg Code- 1946-Law
Declaration of Geneva-1948
United Nations Human Rights Council
People have been treated in an awful way in the history of research
** All of the conventions mentioned are there to keep people SAFE**
Looking at ethical considerations in Paper 1
1/ No clear information about ethics in asking consent and sharing information in the paper
2/ The paper has completely kept research participants anonymous = GOOD
3/ Research findings could have a negative impact on certain groups in society
4/ As it is a longitudinal study - participants may have dropped out. There is no evidence of the practice used for this situation
= Articulating the
evolving literature base available
Ethical Issues arising in this method of research...
synthesizing other peoples work
interlinked people in previous research
present findings / discredited work
do not have consent to use others work
This journal article was produced by Susan Grasswick, a nurse in the community learning disability field in Southampton.
The study is formed from exploring previous literature available. Several themes emerged from analysis of the literature.
Comparison of the methodology of the two papers
Healthy Eating Index
estimated the sociodemographic factors for healthy eating index and diet for the older adults
means and standard deviation for the sociodemographic factors were sorted by gender
analysis of variance (two-tailed t-test) was used to test the effect of the factors affecting healthy eating index score
Raising awareness of healthy eating & General Health
Allowing room and encouraging further research in this area
Emphasis on need for further support in order to help people with healthy living
Highlighting the problems people have with accessing information
Paper 2 highlights the need for further research/ as there is little literature available
Each paper does not clarify how research was conducted - it is assumed the reader will know
May portray certain groups in a negative way
Paper two - is using past research to rely for her own research
Each paper is confusing to the reader / it is poorly set out
Comparison of the methodology of the two papers
reviewed existing literature studies available and explored experience of practice
themes emerged such as:
Conducted in the U.S
a dependent client is more likely to become malnourished
women with learning learning disabilities are more likely to be overweight than their male counterparts
Meaning and language based methods
Does not involve participant
Quantitative research is used to quantify data and generalise results from samples.
It measures views and opinions which are concluded from carrying out research.
Quantitative research includes: surveys.
Quantitative research involves gathering numerical data in order to bring about a result derived from statistics.
Qualitative research however, is used to gain an understanding of what you are trying to find the answers too.
It provides an insight into the problem and can generate ideas as well as produce a hypothesis, which can later be used in quantitative research.
Qualitative research includes; interviews and peoples' experiences.
Qualitative research involves gathering non- statistical data to bring about a result derived from direct questioning and the absence of numerical data.
what problems disabled people are facing
comparing the general population and disabled people
communication methods, poverty, ethnicity
findings for qualitative
findings for quantitative
mixed method studies
The two papers both have positive and negative aspects.
Each paper is not arranged very well.
Both papers are indicating that healthy eating and lifestyle are important. However, the second paper is researching people with a learning disability, the first does not detail any area of research including people with disability nor does it disclose this information.
Research has to follow the correct conventions, to exclude and limit harm to any participants.
Definition of ethics...
a moral principle or set of principles
doing the right thing....
Healthy Eating Index
and conduct research with sensitivity & respect
Looking at ethical considerations in Paper 2
Fair & Humane
Treatment....Causing No physical or Psychological Harm-