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The Stolen Generation
Transcript of The Stolen Generation
Jean Lorthe Introduction Overview Identity and Group Identity The Aboriginals would be placed under a high context culture. Originally the Aboriginal culture consisted over 250 different languages, but most of them have disappeared. Aboriginal art work is a significant style of communication within the culture. The symbols in the art work relay information. In this presentation we will look at: Context Cultures The Stolen Generation Institutionalizing and Identity Apology Works Cited Half-Caste means children of culturally different
usually English Fathers and Aboriginal Mothers
Tribal women lived under stress with half caste children
Severe droughts and fear of full blooded tribal men
Caught in between two worlds
Problem had to be dealt with... "No chance to be anything but hangers-on" -Paul Hasluck "Half-castes promised either to form an ever-growing, impoverished, illiterate, coloured population"
-OR- "To merge back with 'full-blood' Aborigines and swell their numbers" Half-Caste Problem Protection Act of 1909 Common Wealth and State Aboriginal Authorities addressed the half-caste problem
Four options hypothetically proposed
Sterilization of Half-Castes-No
Cultivating a new distinct half caste race- No
Continue practices the same-No
Assimilation through miscegenation, or removal of children- Only option European Mentality Foster Care and Schooling Aboriginal Socialization- Blacks on reserve were corrupt, deceitful and dirty.
Many girls became embarrassed at the color of their skin
It was common for stolen children to cross to the other side of the road if a aboriginal was on coming. Foster Parents, though loving families, tried to change aboriginal identity yet led to inner confusion of children Effects Analysis Types of propaganda were not mass produced by the Australian government. The idea of being the savior over came the original reason to start stealing children to end the Half Caste problem. In essence the propaganda was a mentality of the Scale of Nature Peoples from all over the world were influenced by white racial superiority.
Weaver discusses the cookie cutter idea.
Having one culture mold to the dominate society.
No matter how hard the aboriginal peoples tried they could not fit English culture
Thus the dominate culture had to decide the fate of this new race because in the laws they were more white which in turn blurred and heightened their status. Much of the tension resided in the misunderstanding
of colonial interactions with the aboriginals "We are at war with them: they look upon us as enemies – as invaders – as oppressors and persecutors – they resist our invasion. They have never been subdued, therefore they are not rebellious subjects, but an injured nation, defending in their own way, their rightful possessions which have been torn from them by force " Launceston Advertiser, 1831 Deeply embedded idea of the other
Justified their reasoning for taking children
neglected, abused or abandoned mixed-descent children.
At risk girls especially
Institutionalizing deprived children econciliaction, , ed. "Stolen Generation Fact Sheet." Reconciliaction Network. Word Press, 21 2 2012. Web. 17 Apr 2013. <http://reconciliaction.org.au/nsw/education-kit/stolen-generations/ Ideology If the coloured people of this country are to be absorbed into the general community they must be thoroughly fit and educated at least to the extent of the three R’s. If they can read, write and count, and know what wages they should get, and how to enter into an agreement with an employer, that is all that should be necessary. Once that is accomplished there is no reason in the world why these coloured people should not be absorbed into the community. To achieve this end, however, we must have charge of the children at the age of six years; it is useless to wait until they are twelve or thirteen years of age.
— A. O. Neville, Canberra, 21 April 1937 Foley, Gary. "Assimilating the Native and the U.S. and Australia." The Kori History Website. Kooriweb.org, 12 6 2000. Web. 17 Apr 2013. <http://www.kooriweb.org/foley/essays/essay_15.html>. The Three R's refer to Ross, Redfield, & Robin who devised an educational system of Reading, Writing and Arithmetic.
Even this is based in "The St Augustine's Confessions" Book 1
"For those first lessons, reading, writing and arithmetic, I thought as great a burden and penalty as any Greek" Austin, Tony. "'A Change To Be Decent': Northern Territory 'Half-Caste' Girls in Service in South Australia 1916-1939." Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, Inc. 60. (1991): 51-65. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/27509047>. Austin, Tony. "Training for Assimilation: Cecil Cook and the 'Half-Caste' Apprentice Regulations." Melbourne Studies in Education. 29.1 (1987): 128-141. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17508488709556226>. Aboriginal Culture The Stolen Generation: refers to the removal
of Aboriginal children from their families by
Australian government agencies and church missions between approximately 1900 and 1972. Stolen Generation." Kids.Net.Au. Kids.Net.Au, n.d. Web. 17 Apr 2013. <http://encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/st/Stolen_Generation>. Individual Identity
Many children were removed from homes before they were 8
"By doing this to a child, the child is likely to not be able to trust anyone again – the hurt never goes away."
Individual identity is gone
lack of self esteem
alcoholism problems and addiction At least 30,000 children were removed from their parents. This figure may be higher due to disfigured records
"Mixed decent" persons were targeted overall
Overall plan was to adsorb aboriginal population into the English culture Placement Most children were placed in religious or charitable organizations, although a significant amount of females were fostered out.
Many of the facilities were poorly kept and the resources were insufficient to improve them or to keep the children adequately clothed, fed and sheltered.
Incidences of sexual abuse were common amongst these institutions Having been raised without the cultural reinforcement from their parents, children have difficulty raising their own children.
"Questioning origins was emotionally draining, ashamed and angry, it become difficult for her to explain her heritage" Sally Morgan, Aboriginal Culture Today
Overall, this indicates to the destruction of a once well operating Aboriginal social structure Protection Act repercussions on Communication Aboriginal Culture
Analysis of Stolen Generation
Conflicting Ideologies and repercussions
Identity of Self and Other
Identity and Group Identity
Looking forward Where they were taken from and to: Many of the stolen generations were taken mainly but not limited from South Australia and and New South Wales
These were where the British social centers were
A report from 1994 says that 1 in every 10 aboriginal people over 15 was taken as a child.
6200 children were stolen in New South Wales operated from 24 May 1908 to 1981 1887 until 1986. About 30,000 girls were locked up during that time Few records of stolen children were kept, some were deliberately destroyed or just lost.
Some administrations tried to tout their “successful assimilation” of Aboriginal people by deliberately understating Aboriginal numbers, thus distorting data. "The [South Australian] government was unable to say how many Stolen Generation people live in the state". 2007 Compensation Ruling 10,000 Aboriginal Social Structure Religion Reason for conflict Physical Structuring Religious Structuring Social Structuring aka Kinship System Tribe/ Language Group Horde/band Family 500 10-20 Moieties- two kinds Animals plants places + Totems Everyone is named in relation to one another Defines roles in society Similar obligations to aunts and uncles to biological parents Multiple gods- image is often depicted as tangible ex rock art
One large Creation Period
60,000 years old
Notion that families remembered their predecessors but after a few great grandparents they became creators. Wandjina As shown, fundamental religious concepts and social structures of the aborigines are very different than that of the early British colonial settlers. In reaction to these differences, Tönnies concept of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft come into play. In this case the pre-colonized aboriginal culture (Gemeinschaft) was propelled by colonization, conflicting identities, and cultural misconceptions into an attempted Gesellschaft or, heterogeneous urban society, by the implanted English government Counter Culture would be created in one or two generations... Why? A merchant class will arise, an externalized system of law-and-order will develop to ensure predictability of human behavior and the concept of dehumanization or alienation will cause people to long for social order and a sense of belonging provided by the village. 1890's to 1970's Hall suggests that culture is communication.
Not only was communication lost between English and aboriginal descendants but also between aborigines themselves.
Because of the lack of culture or Hall's non-verbal communication what may have developed is a peoples that no longer know how to interact with the world the surrounds them.
The relocation of children could even be classified as culture shock without having a full understanding of their own culture. Impacts Welch, David. "Aboriginal Religion." aboriginalculture.com.au. Aboriginalculture.com.au, n.d. Web. 17 Apr 2013. <http://www.aboriginalculture.com.au/religion.shtml>. Korff, Jens. "A guide to Australia's Stolen Generation ." creativespirits.info. National Library of Australia, n.d. Web. 17 Apr 2013. <http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/politics/a-guide-to-australias-stolen-generations>. 1:30 Group Identity
Aboriginals split up
Children could not maintain
Aboriginals had group identity stripped Parry, Naomi. Australian Government. Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. Aborgines Protection Act 1909 (1909-1969). State Of New South Wales: New South Wales, 2011. Web. <http://www.findandconnect.gov.au/nsw/biogs/NE00010b.htm>. Individual. vs Group
Is it possible to strengthen
individual identity while
group identity is weakened? In 2008 the Australian Prime Minister administered a national apology to the indigenous people. Over 1,000 Aborigines showed up to watch the apology. The apology was directed to those who were taken form their families as children. However, Rudd did not mention amending compensation. The Aboriginals decided to launch first wave of law suit against the Australian government to get reparations for the damages the Australian government. The Corroborees which a form of music and dance is another way the Aboriginal culture communicate. It often told a story of hunting or of aboriginal "dream time".
The men and boys who are going through initiation use scarring as a way to communicate what tribe they come from.
The Aborigines perception of skin color is not based on "color". It is based as a whole in terms of the human race. The word "skin" has a different meaning. They see skin is not a method of segregation and is not as important. The Iceberg theory demonstrates the structure of the Aboriginal culture. Subsurface the dynamics of the culture is complex. 2008: Australia’s Parliament apologizes for past government policies that “inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss” on Aborigines who were taken from their families under now discredited assimilation programs between 1910 and 1970.
1998: Canada apologizes to its native peoples for past acts of oppression, including decades of abuse at federally funded boarding schools whose goal was to sever Indian and Inuit youths from their culture and assimilate them in white society.
1992: South African President F.W. de Klerk apologizes for apartheid, marking the first time a white leader in the country expressed regret for the system of legalized segregation that allowed 5 million whites to dominate 30 million blacks.
1990: The Soviet Union apologizes for the murder of thousands of imprisoned Polish officers shot during World War II and buried in mass graves in the Katyn Forest.
1988: The U.S. Congress passes a law apologizing to Japanese-Americans for their internment during World War II and offering $20,000 payments to survivors.
1951: West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer acknowledges the suffering of the Jews in the Holocaust and the following year, Germany agrees to pay reparations to Israel. In 1990, the then East German Parliament issues an apology to Israel and all Jews and others who suffered. http://zeroanthropology.net/2008/02/16/the-australian-apology-to-aboriginals-news-extracts/ Significance Lost of Identity
Impact of the event
Is it possible to fully make reparations and amends? Why should students in IR study this?
Not the first time this has happend in history
Teaches how to deal with identity loss
3rd culture children
Gives us a deeper understanding of the dangers of power in a dominant culture What does this relate to?
Entire families taken apart
Happened at the same time Importance 17% of females and 8% of males report sexual abuse under care