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Cell World

This presentation will include the structure and function of each cell organelle.
by

Chao Lin

on 26 October 2013

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Transcript of Cell World

Why are cells important?
- They are the fundamental units of life.
- All living organisms are made up of cells.

TYPES OF CELLS
Prokaryotic Cells
- Unicellular
- Lacking a true nucleus and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cells
- They are much simpler in structure than eukaryotic cells.
- Only bacteria and Archae are prokaryotes.
Prokaryotic Cell
Procaryote & Eukaryote
Eukaryotic Cells
- Can be unicelluar OR multicelluar
- Complex structure
- Have membrane-bound organelles
- Fungi, Protists, Animals & Plants

Animal Cell
How does a cell do its job?
Organelles!
Organelles are tiny organs of a cell. Each organelle has a specific role to play in how cells work.
Let's learn about the organelles of plant and animal Cells!
Plant Cell
Organelles in Plant Cell ONLY
Organelles in Animal Cell ONLY
Organelles in both Plant and Animal Cells
- Cytoskeleton
- Mitochondrion
- Cell Membrane
- Ribosome
- Golgi Apparatus
- Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Nucleus
- Peroxisome
- Chloroplast

- Central Vacuole

- Cell Wall

- Plasmodesmata
- Lysosomes

- Centrosomes, with
centrioes
Chloroplast
Central Vacuole
The central vacuole is very essential to a plant's life. It stores many important organic compounds. Many plant cells use their vacuoles to dispose metabolic by-products. Some central vacuoles contains pigments that add color to the cell that would help the flowers attract pollinators. Vacuoles may contain poisonous or unpalatable compounds that can protect the plant against predators. The central vacuole also has a selective membrane that controls what enters and exits.
Function
Structure
This organelle is the largest compartment in a plant cell. It is a membrane bound sacs found in cytoplasm. It contains a solution inside called cell sap, which contains many compounds.
The chloroplast is the organelle that provides food for the cell. It perfroms a process called photosynthesis, where sunlight, water and carbon dixoide are being converted into glucose (sugar) and other organic molecules that can be used by cells.
Function
The organelle is double membraned that contains stacks of thylakoids called granum. Thylakoids are flattened saclike membranes where ATP is made. It has its own DNA which is located in fluid-filled space called stroma along with ribosomes and enzymes
Structure
Cell Wall
Function
Cell wall protects the plant cell, maintains the cell shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water. It also provides a mechainical support that holds up the plant against the force of gravity.
Structure
The cell wall is composed of cellulose, polysaccharides, and proteins. In a young plant cell the cell wall is thin and flexible. When the cell is fully grown, it may thickening it or add new layers of different material called the secondary cell wall. The secondary cell wall has a sturdy matrix that provides protection and support for the cell.
The gluey pectin layer is also known as the middle lamella. It glues adjacent cells together.
Plasmodesmata
The plasmodesmata are channels on the cell wall that connect the cytoplasms of neighboring plant cells. These channels are important because they allow water and small solutes to move from one cell to another.
Function
Structure
Plasmodesmata are lined with plasma membrane. Most plasmodestmata also contain a narrow tube-like structure called the desmotubule. Some molecules are being transported through the desmotubule; however, it is not the main route for plasmodesmata transport.
Lysosome
Function/Structure
A lysosome is a sac of hydrolytic enzymes that is mainly used to digest micromolecules. It also breaks down damaged organelles. Hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomal membrane are synthesized by rough ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum) and then transferred to the Golgi apparatus.
Phagocytosis
Autophagy
Two Types of Digestion
Phagocytosis
Autophagy
This is the digestion process where lysosome breaks down food. Food vauoles combines with lysosome that contains hydrolytic enzymes (digestive enzymes). Then, hydrolytic enzymes breaks down food particles, which become nutrients for the cell.
This process is when lysosomes break down damaged organelles. Lysosome fuses with vesicle that contains disabled organelles. Then, hydrolytic enzymes digest the organelle components.
Centrosome
Function/Structure
The centrosome is an organelle in the animal cell that is responsible for organizing microtubules. Each centrosome has a pair of centrioles. It also guides chromosomes in mitosis.
Animal Cell
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Plant Cell
Plant Cell
P
Plant Cell
Cytoskeleton
Function
Cytoskeleton functions to support the cell and maintain its shape, provide motility for the cell, and regulate the cell response to different stimulants.
Structure
Cytoskeleton is made up of three main type of fiber: Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments
Microtubules
Microtubules are present in all eukaryotic cells. It contains hollow tubes and walls made up of tubulin molecules. Its main functions are to maintain cell shape, provide cell motility (as in cilia or flagella), and help with the movement of organelles and chromosomes in cell division.
Microfilaments
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Microfilaments are solid, rod-like structures composed of two intertwined strands of actin. They provide structural support, maintain cell shape, and play a role in cell motility.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Intermediate Filaments
Intermediate filaments contains fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables. It serves as an anchorage of nucleus and other organelles. It also strengthens the cytoskeleton and maintain cell shape.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Mitochondrion
Functions
Structures
Mitochondria can be found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. It is known as the power house of the cell because it is where ATP (energy used by cells) is produced through a process called cellular respiration. It breaks down sugar (glucose), fats and other fuels to generate ATP.
ATP
Mitochondria has its own DNA and ribosomes and it is enclosed by two membranes. The outer membrane is smooth, but the inner memebrane has foldings called cristae. The inner memebrane divides the mitochondrion into two sections. The first is the intermembrane space, which is the narrow region between the inner and outer memebrane. The second is the mitochondrial matrix. DNA, ribosomes and many different enzymes can be found in the matrix.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Cell Membrane
Functions
Cell memebrane is also known as the plasma membrane. It is a selective barrier that controls the movement of oxygen, nutrients, waste and other substances into and out of the cell. It also identifies signals from other cells, which allows cells to communicate.
Structure
Cell memebrane has a double layer of phospholipids with different proteins attched to. The proteins are the receptor molecules that receive signals from other cells.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Ribosome
Function
Ribosome is an organelle that produces protein for the cell.
Structure
Ribosomes are composed of two subunits, which are rRNA and protein. There are two types of ribosomes:
free ribosomes
and
bound ribosomes
.
Free ribosomes are located in the cytosol. The proteins produced by free ribosomes are used only in the cytosol.
Bound ribosomes are attached to endoplasmic reticulum. The proteins produced by bound ribosomes are mainly used for export or for memebranes.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Golgi apparatus
Functions
The Golgi apparatus is a shipping and receiving center for the cell. It receives cell products, such as proteins, from the ER (Endoplasmic reticulum) and finishes the products. The finished products will be stored or shipped to other locations by vesicles.
Structure
The Golgi apparatus has a structure that is made up of cisternae, which are stacks of flattened membrane sacs. It has two sides: cis face and trans face. Cis face is the "receiving" side, and the trans face is the "shipping" side of the Golgi apparatus.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membranous structure of interconnected tubules and flattened sacs that processes protein, membranes and other systhesis of many compounds. Its memebrane is connected to the nuclear envolope. There are two types of ER: Smooth ER and Rough ER.
Smooth ER
The smooth ER functions in membrane production and many metabolic processes, including sythesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, and detoxification of drugs and poisons. This part of the ER does not have ribosomes.
Rough ER
The rough ER has ribosomes attached to its body. It functions to release the proteins produced by the ribosomes to different places in the body, such as the blood stream.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Nucleus
The nucleus contains most of the genes in all eukaryotic cells. It's main function is to protect the DNA. The nucleus is composed of three parts: Nuclear envelope, Nucleolus, and Chromatin.
Nuclear envelope
The Nuclear envelope is a double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Its membrane contains many pores that controls the entry and exit of most proteins and RNAs.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Nucleolus
The Nucleolus creates ribsosomal subunits from rRNA and proteins. Proteins imported from the cytoplasm combines with rRNA to form large and small ribosomal subunits. These subunits then exit the nucleus through nuclear pores and combine to form a ribosome.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Chromatin
Chromatin contains proteins and DNA. It is the material that makes up chromosomes.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Peroxisome
Peroxisome has various functions. Some perxisomes use oxygen to break down fatty acids into sugars that can be easily transported to mitochondria, where they are used for cellular respiration. Peroxisomes in the liver detoxify alcohol and other poisons. Peroxisome also produces peroxide (H2O2), which can be converted into water.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
The End
Chao Lin
AP Biology
A. Tonn
Full transcript